IL-13 dysregulation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory and remodeling diseases. In these settings, STAT6 is believed to be the canonical signaling molecule mediating the tissue effects of IL-13. Signaling cascades involving MAPKs have been linked to inflammation and remodeling. We hypothesized that MAPKs play critical roles in effector responses induced by IL-13 in the lung. We found that Tg IL-13 expression in the lung led to potent activation of ERK1/2 but not JNK1/2 or p38. ERK1/2 activation also occurred in mice with null mutations of STAT6. Systemic administration of the MAPK/ERK kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor PD98059 or use of Tg mice in which a dominant-negative MEK1 construct was expressed inhibited IL-13–induced inflammation and alveolar remodeling. There were associated decreases in IL-13–induced chemokines (MIP-1α/CCL-3, MIP-1β/CCL-4, MIP-2/CXCL-1, RANTES/CCL-5), MMP-2, -9, -12, and -14, and cathepsin B and increased levels of α1-antitrypsin. IL-13–induced tissue and molecular responses were noted that were equally and differentially dependent on ERK1/2 and STAT6 signaling. Thus, ERK1/2 is activated by IL-13 in the lung in a STAT6-independent manner where it contributes to IL-13–induced inflammation and remodeling and is required for optimal IL-13 stimulation of specific chemokines and proteases as well as the inhibition of specific antiproteases. ERK1/2 regulators may be useful in the treatment of IL-13–induced diseases and disorders.
Patty J. Lee, Xuchen Zhang, Peiying Shan, Bing Ma, Chun Geun Lee, Robert J. Homer, Zhou Zhu, Mercedes Rincon, Brooke T. Mossman, Jack A. Elias
Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) is a matricellular protein that inhibits angiogenesis and causes apoptosis in vivo and in vitro in several cancerous cells and tissues. Here we identify TSP-1 as the molecule with the highest induction level at 3 hours of IR injury in rat and mouse kidneys subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury using the DNA microarray approach. Northern hybridizations demonstrated that TSP-1 expression was undetectable at baseline, induced at 3 and 12 hours, and returned to baseline levels at 48 hours of reperfusion. Immunocytochemical staining identified the injured proximal tubules as the predominant sites of expression of TSP-1 in IR injury and showed colocalization of TSP-1 with activated caspase-3. Addition of purified TSP-1 to normal kidney proximal tubule cells or cells subjected to ATP depletion in vitro induced injury as demonstrated by cytochrome c immunocytochemical staining and caspase-3 activity. The deleterious role of TSP-1 in ischemic kidney injury was demonstrated directly in TSP-1 null mice, which showed significant protection against IR injury–induced renal failure and tubular damage. We propose that TSP-1 is a novel regulator of ischemic damage in the kidney and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemic kidney failure.
Charuhas V. Thakar, Kamyar Zahedi, Monica P. Revelo, Zhaohui Wang, Charles E. Burnham, Sharon Barone, Shannon Bevans, Alex B. Lentsch, Hamid Rabb, Manoocher Soleimani
Hemin upregulates heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-induced enzyme implicated in protection from a variety of injuries while its related isoform HO-2 is constitutively expressed. The role of hemin or HO-1 in the pancreas and their potential modulation of pancreatic injury are unknown. We show that HO-1 is induced in pancreatitis caused by caerulein and more prominently in severe pancreatitis caused by feeding a choline-deficient diet (CDD). Intraperitoneal hemin administration dramatically increases peritoneal and pancreas macrophages that overexpress HO-1 in association with pancreatic induction of the chemoattractants monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α but not RANTES or macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Hemin administration before CDD feeding protected 8 of 8 mice from lethality while 7 of 16 controls died. Protection is mediated by HO-1–overexpressing macrophages since hemin-primed macrophages home to the pancreas after transfer to naive mice and protect from CDD-induced pancreatitis. Suppression of hemin-primed peritoneal cell HO-1 using HO-1–specific small interfering RNA prior to cell transfer abolishes protection from CDD-induced pancreatitis. Similarly, hemin pretreatment in caerulein-induced pancreatitis reduces serum amylase and lipase, decreases pancreatic trypsin generation, and protects from lung injury. Therefore, hemin-like compounds or hemin-activated macrophages may offer novel therapeutic approaches for preventing acute pancreatitis and its pulmonary complication via upregulation of HO-1.
Ikuo Nakamichi, Aida Habtezion, Bihui Zhong, Christopher H. Contag, Eugene C. Butcher, M. Bishr Omary
The umbrella cells that line the bladder are mechanosensitive, and bladder filling increases the apical surface area of these cells; however, the upstream signals that regulate this process are unknown. Increased pressure stimulated ATP release from the isolated uroepithelium of rabbit bladders, which was blocked by inhibitors of vesicular transport, connexin hemichannels, ABC protein family members, and nucleoside transporters. Pressure-induced increases in membrane capacitance (a measure of apical plasma membrane surface area where 1 μF ≈ 1 cm2) were inhibited by the serosal, but not mucosal, addition of apyrase or the purinergic receptor antagonist PPADS. Upon addition of purinergic receptor agonists, increased capacitance was observed even in the absence of pressure. Moreover, knockout mice lacking expression of P2X2 and/or P2X3 receptors failed to show increases in apical surface area when exposed to hydrostatic pressure. Treatments that prevented release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores or activation of PKA blocked ATPγS-stimulated changes in capacitance. These results indicate that increased hydrostatic pressure stimulates release of ATP from the uroepithelium and that upon binding to P2X and possibly P2Y receptors on the umbrella cell, downstream Ca2+ and PKA second messenger cascades may act to stimulate membrane insertion at the apical pole of these cells.
Edward C.Y. Wang, Jey-Myung Lee, Wily G. Ruiz, Elena M. Balestreire, Maximilian von Bodungen, Stacey Barrick, Debra A. Cockayne, Lori A. Birder, Gerard Apodaca
Synaptopodin is the founding member of a novel class of proline-rich actin-associated proteins highly expressed in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes. Synaptopodin-deficient (synpo–/–) mice lack the dendritic spine apparatus and display impaired activity-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity. In contrast, the ultrastructure of podocytes in synpo–/– mice is normal. Here we show that synpo–/– mice display impaired recovery from protamine sulfate–induced podocyte foot process (FP) effacement and LPS-induced nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, synpo–/– podocytes show impaired actin filament reformation in vitro. We further demonstrate that synaptopodin exists in 3 isoforms, neuronal Synpo-short (685 AA), renal Synpo-long (903 AA), and Synpo-T (181 AA). The C terminus of Synpo-long is identical to that of Synpo-T. All 3 isoforms specifically interact with α-actinin and elongate α-actinin–induced actin filaments. synpo–/– mice lack Synpo-short and Synpo-long expression but show an upregulation of Synpo-T protein expression in podocytes, though not in the brain. Gene silencing of Synpo-T abrogates stress-fiber formation in synpo–/– podocytes, demonstrating that Synpo-T serves as a backup for Synpo-long in synpo–/– podocytes. In concert, synaptopodin regulates the actin-bundling activity of α-actinin in highly dynamic cell compartments, such as podocyte FPs and the dendritic spine apparatus.
Katsuhiko Asanuma, Kwanghee Kim, Jun Oh, Laura Giardino, Sophie Chabanis, Christian Faul, Jochen Reiser, Peter Mundel
The monomeric small GTPase Rab27a is specifically localized on both secretory granules and lysosome-related organelles. Although natural mutations of the Rab27a gene in human Griscelli syndrome and in ashen mice cause partial albinism and immunodeficiency reflecting the dysfunction of lysosome-related organelles, phenotypes resulting from the defective exocytosis of secretory granules have not been reported. To explore the roles of Rab27a in secretory granules, we analyzed insulin secretion profiles in ashen mice. Ashen mice showed glucose intolerance after a glucose load without signs of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues or insulin deficiency in the pancreas. Insulin secretion from isolated islets was decreased specifically in response to high glucose concentrations but not other nonphysiological secretagogues such as high K+ concentrations, forskolin, or phorbol ester. Neither the intracellular Ca2+ concentration nor the dynamics of fusion pore opening after glucose stimulation were altered. There were, however, marked reductions in the exocytosis from insulin granules predocked on the plasma membrane and in the replenishment of docked granules during glucose stimulation. These results provide the first genetic evidence to our knowledge for the role of Rab27a in the exocytosis of secretory granules and suggest that the Rab27a/effector system mediates glucose-specific signals for the exocytosis of insulin granules in pancreatic β cells.
Kazuo Kasai, Mica Ohara-Imaizumi, Noriko Takahashi, Shin Mizutani, Shengli Zhao, Toshiteru Kikuta, Haruo Kasai, Shinya Nagamatsu, Hiroshi Gomi, Tetsuro Izumi
The present study examines the role of Pyk2 in acid regulation of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) activity in OKP cells, a kidney proximal tubule epithelial cell line. Incubation of OKP cells in acid media caused a transient increase in Pyk2 phosphorylation that peaked at 30 seconds and increased Pyk2/c-Src binding at 90 seconds. Pyk2 isolated by immunoprecipitation and studied in a cell-free system was activated and phosphorylated at acidic pH. Acid activation of Pyk2 (a) was specific for Pyk2 in that acid did not activate focal adhesion kinase, (b) required calcium, and (c) was associated with increased affinity for ATP. Transfection of OKP cells with dominant-negative pyk2K457A or small interfering pyk2 duplex RNA blocked acid activation of NHE3, while neither had an effect on glucocorticoid activation of NHE3. In addition, pyk2K457A blocked acid activation of c-Src kinase, which is also required for acid regulation of NHE3. The present results demonstrate that Pyk2 is directly activated by acidic pH and that Pyk2 activation is required for acid activation of c-Src kinase and NHE3. Given that partially purified Pyk2 can be activated by acid in a cell-free system, Pyk2 may serve as the pH sensor that initiates the acid-regulated signaling cascade involved in NHE3 regulation.
Shaoying Li, Soichiro Sato, Xiaojing Yang, Patricia A. Preisig, Robert J. Alpern
TNF plays a pathogenic role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which are characterized by altered cytokine production and increased intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis. In vitro studies suggest that kinase suppressor of Ras-1 (KSR1) is an essential regulatory kinase for TNF-stimulated survival pathways in intestinal epithelial cell lines. Here we use a KSR1-deficient mouse model to study the role of KSR1 in regulating intestinal cell fate during cytokine-mediated inflammation. We show that KSR1 and its target signaling pathways are activated in inflamed colon mucosa. Loss of KSR1 increases susceptibility to chronic colitis and TNF-induced apoptosis in the intestinal epithelial cell. Furthermore, disruption of KSR1 expression enhances TNF-induced apoptosis in mouse colon epithelial cells and is associated with a failure to activate antiapoptotic signals including Raf-1/MEK/ERK, NF-κB, and Akt/protein kinase B. These effects are reversed by WT, but not kinase-inactive, KSR1. We conclude that KSR1 has an essential protective role in the intestinal epithelial cell during inflammation through activation of cell survival pathways.
Fang Yan, Sutha K. John, Guinn Wilson, David S. Jones, M. Kay Washington, D. Brent Polk
Mucosal epithelial cells are uniquely equipped to maintain barrier function even under adverse conditions. Previous studies have implicated hypoxia in mucosal tissue damage resulting from both acute and chronic inflammation. Given the importance of the transcriptional regulator hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) for adaptive hypoxia responses, we hypothesized that HIF-1 may serve as a barrier-protective element during mucosal inflammation. Initial studies of hapten-based murine colitis revealed extensive mucosal hypoxia and concomitant HIF-1 activation during colitis. To study this in more detail, we generated 2 mouse lines with intestinal epithelium–targeted expression of either mutant Hif1a (inability to form HIF-1) or mutant von Hippel-Lindau gene (Vhlh; constitutively active HIF-1). Studies of colitis in these mice revealed that decreased HIF-1 expression correlated with more severe clinical symptoms (mortality, weight loss, colon length), while increased HIF levels were protective in these parameters. Furthermore, colons with constitutive activation of HIF displayed increased expression levels of HIF-1–regulated barrier-protective genes (multidrug resistance gene-1, intestinal trefoil factor, CD73), resulting in attenuated loss of barrier during colitis in vivo. Taken together, these studies provide insight into tissue microenvironmental changes during model inflammatory bowel disease and identify HIF-1 as a critical factor for barrier protection during mucosal insult.
Jörn Karhausen, Glenn T. Furuta, John E. Tomaszewski, Randall S. Johnson, Sean P. Colgan, Volker H. Haase
Previous reports have identified a circulating pool of CD45+ collagen I+ CXCR4+ (CD45+Col I+CXCR4+) cells, termed fibrocytes, that traffic to areas of fibrosis. No studies have demonstrated that these cells actually contribute to fibrosis, however. Pulmonary fibrosis was originally thought to be mediated solely by resident lung fibroblasts. Here we show that a population of human CD45+Col I+CXCR4+ circulating fibrocytes migrates in response to CXCL12 and traffics to the lungs in a murine model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Next, we demonstrated that murine CD45+Col I+CXCR4+ fibrocytes also traffic to the lungs in response to a bleomycin challenge. Maximal intrapulmonary recruitment of CD45+Col I+CXCR4+ fibrocytes directly correlated with increased collagen deposition in the lungs. Treatment of bleomycin-exposed animals with specific neutralizing anti-CXCL12 Ab’s inhibited intrapulmonary recruitment of CD45+Col I+CXCR4+ circulating fibrocytes and attenuated lung fibrosis. Thus, our results demonstrate, we believe for the first time, that circulating fibrocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.
Roderick J. Phillips, Marie D. Burdick, Kurt Hong, Marin A. Lutz, Lynne A. Murray, Ying Ying Xue, John A. Belperio, Michael P. Keane, Robert M. Strieter
Environmental stresses converge on the mitochondria that can trigger or inhibit cell death. Excitable, postmitotic cells, in response to sublethal noxious stress, engage mechanisms that afford protection from subsequent insults. We show that reoxygenation after prolonged hypoxia reduces the reactive oxygen species (ROS) threshold for the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in cardiomyocytes and that cell survival is steeply negatively correlated with the fraction of depolarized mitochondria. Cell protection that exhibits a memory (preconditioning) results from triggered mitochondrial swelling that causes enhanced substrate oxidation and ROS production, leading to redox activation of PKC, which inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Alternatively, receptor tyrosine kinase or certain G protein–coupled receptor activation elicits cell protection (without mitochondrial swelling or durable memory) by inhibiting GSK-3β, via protein kinase B/Akt and mTOR/p70s6k pathways, PKC pathways, or protein kinase A pathways. The convergence of these pathways via inhibition of GSK-3β on the end effector, the permeability transition pore complex, to limit MPT induction is the general mechanism of cardiomyocyte protection.
Magdalena Juhaszova, Dmitry B. Zorov, Suhn-Hee Kim, Salvatore Pepe, Qin Fu, Kenneth W. Fishbein, Bruce D. Ziman, Su Wang, Kirsti Ytrehus, Christopher L. Antos, Eric N. Olson, Steven J. Sollott
Isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt) methylates the carboxyl-terminal isoprenylcysteine of CAAX proteins (e.g., Ras and Rho proteins). In the case of the Ras proteins, carboxyl methylation is important for targeting of the proteins to the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that a knockout of Icmt would reduce the ability of cells to be transformed by K-Ras. Fibroblasts harboring a floxed Icmt allele and expressing activated K-Ras (K-Ras-Icmtflx/flx) were treated with Cre-adenovirus, producing K-Ras-IcmtΔ/Δ fibroblasts. Inactivation of Icmt inhibited cell growth and K-Ras–induced oncogenic transformation, both in soft agar assays and in a nude mice model. The inactivation of Icmt did not affect growth factor–stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 or Akt1. However, levels of RhoA were greatly reduced as a consequence of accelerated protein turnover. In addition, there was a large Ras/Erk1/2-dependent increase in p21Cip1, which was probably a consequence of the reduced levels of RhoA. Deletion of p21Cip1 restored the ability of K-Ras-IcmtΔ/Δ fibroblasts to grow in soft agar. The effect of inactivating Icmt was not limited to the inhibition of K-Ras–induced transformation: inactivation of Icmt blocked transformation by an oncogenic form of B-Raf (V599E). These studies identify Icmt as a potential target for reducing the growth of K-Ras– and B-Raf–induced malignancies.
Martin O. Bergo, Bryant J. Gavino, Christine Hong, Anne P. Beigneux, Martin McMahon, Patrick J. Casey, Stephen G. Young
Mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) cause a variety of human diseases including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. The tissue-specific effects of lamin mutations are unclear, in part because the function of lamin A/C is incompletely defined, but the many muscle-specific phenotypes suggest that defective lamin A/C could increase cellular mechanical sensitivity. To investigate the role of lamin A/C in mechanotransduction, we subjected lamin A/C–deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts to mechanical strain and measured nuclear mechanical properties and strain-induced signaling. We found that Lmna–/– cells have increased nuclear deformation, defective mechanotransduction, and impaired viability under mechanical strain. NF-κB–regulated transcription in response to mechanical or cytokine stimulation was attenuated in Lmna–/– cells despite increased transcription factor binding. Lamin A/C deficiency is thus associated with both defective nuclear mechanics and impaired mechanically activated gene transcription. These findings suggest that the tissue-specific effects of lamin A/C mutations observed in the laminopathies may arise from varying degrees of impaired nuclear mechanics and transcriptional activation.
Jan Lammerding, P. Christian Schulze, Tomosaburo Takahashi, Serguei Kozlov, Teresa Sullivan, Roger D. Kamm, Colin L. Stewart, Richard T. Lee
The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. To examine this possibility directly, adult mice were durably engrafted with BM isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced GFP. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis in such chimera mice by endotracheal bleomycin (BLM) injection caused large numbers of GFP+ cells to appear in active fibrotic lesions, while only a few GFP+ cells could be identified in control lungs. Flow-cytometric analysis of lung cells confirmed the BLM-induced increase in GFP+ cells in chimera mice and revealed a significant increase in GFP+ cells that also express type I collagen. GFP+ lung fibroblasts isolated from chimera mice expressed collagen and telomerase reverse transcriptase but not α-smooth muscle actin. Treatment of isolated GFP+ fibroblasts with TGF-β failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation. Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell–derived factor-1α and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells.
Naozumi Hashimoto, Hong Jin, Tianju Liu, Stephen W. Chensue, Sem H. Phan
Although capillary barrier deterioration underlies major inflammatory lung pathology, barrier-enhancing strategies are not available. To consider hyperosmolar therapy as a possible strategy, we gave 15-minute infusions of hyperosmolar sucrose in lung venular capillaries imaged in real time. Surprisingly, this treatment enhanced the capillary barrier, as indicated by quantification of the capillary hydraulic conductivity. The barrier enhancement was sufficient to block the injurious effects of thrombin, TNF-α, and H2O2 in single capillaries, and of intratracheal acid instillation in the whole lung. Capillary immunofluorescence indicated that the hyperosmolar infusion markedly augmented actin filament formation and E-cadherin expression at the endothelial cell periphery. The actin-depolymerizing agent latrunculin B abrogated the hyperosmolar barrier enhancement as well as the actin filament formation, suggesting a role for actin in the barrier response. Furthermore, hyperosmolar infusion blocked TNF-α–induced P-selectin expression in an actin-dependent manner. Our results provide the first evidence to our knowledge that in lung capillaries, hyperosmolarity remodels the endothelial barrier and the actin cytoskeleton to enhance barrier properties and block proinflammatory secretory processes. Hyperosmolar therapy may be beneficial in lung inflammatory disease.
Zeenat Safdar, Ping Wang, Hideo Ichimura, Andrew C. Issekutz, Sadiqa Quadri, Jahar Bhattacharya
15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) has been identified as an endogenous ligand for PPARγ, inducing adipogenesis in vitro. Additional roles for this molecule in the propagation and resolution of inflammation, ligation of NF-κB, and mediation of apoptosis have been proposed. However, quantitative, physiochemical evidence for the formation of 15d-PGJ2 in vivo is lacking. We report that 15d-PGJ2 is detectable using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry at low picomolar concentrations in the medium of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. However, despite induction of COX-2, production of PGs, including 15d-PGJ2, does not increase during adipocyte differentiation, a process unaltered by COX inhibition. 15d-PGJ2 is detectable as a minor product of COX-2 in human urine. However, its biosynthesis is unaltered during or after COX activation in vivo by LPS. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of 15d-PGJ2 is not augmented in the joint fluid of patients with arthritis, nor is its urinary excretion increased in patients with diabetes or obesity. 15d-PGJ2 is not the endogenous mediator of PPARγ-dependent adipocyte activation and is unaltered in clinical settings in which PPARγ activation has been implicated.
L. Chastine Bell-Parikh, Tomomi Ide, John A. Lawson, Peter McNamara, Muredach Reilly, Garret A. FitzGerald
Primary pulmonary hypertension is a fatal disease causing progressive right heart failure within 3 years after diagnosis. We describe a new concept for treatment of the disease using vasoactive intestinal peptide, a neuropeptide primarily functioning as a neurotransmitter that acts as a potent systemic and pulmonary vasodilator. Our rationale is based on the finding of a deficiency of the peptide in serum and lung tissue of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, as evidenced by radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry. The relevance of this finding is underlined by an upregulation of corresponding receptor sites as shown by Northern blot analysis, Western blot analysis, and immunological techniques. Consequently, the substitution with the hormone results in substantial improvement of hemodynamic and prognostic parameters of the disease without side effects. It decreased the mean pulmonary artery pressure in our eight study patients, increased cardiac output, and mixed venous oxygen saturation. Our data provide enough proof for further investigation of vasoactive intestinal peptide and its role in primary pulmonary hypertension.
Ventzislav Petkov, Wilhelm Mosgoeller, Rolf Ziesche, Markus Raderer, Leopold Stiebellehner, Karin Vonbank, Georg-Christian Funk, Gerhard Hamilton, Clemens Novotny, Bernhard Burian, Lutz-Henning Block
In response to Ab-complement–mediated injury, podocytes can undergo lysis, apoptosis, or, when exposed to sublytic (<5% lysis) amounts of C5b-9, become activated. Following the insertion of sublytic quantities of C5b-9, there is an increase in signaling pathways and growth factor synthesis and release of proteases, oxidants, and other molecules. Despite an increase in DNA synthesis, however, sublytic C5b-9 is associated with a delay in G2/M phase progression in podocytes. Here we induced sublytic C5b-9 injury in vitro by exposing cultured rat podocytes or differentiated postmitotic mouse podocytes to Ab and a complement source; we also studied the passive Heymann nephritis model of experimental membranous nephropathy in rats. A major finding was that sublytic C5b-9–induced injury caused an increase in DNA damage in podocytes both in vitro and in vivo. This was associated with an increase in protein levels for p53, the CDK inhibitor p21, growth-arrest DNA damage-45 (GADD45), and the checkpoint kinases-1 and -2. Sublytic C5b-9 increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK-1 and -2), and inhibiting ERK-1 and -2 reduced the increase in p21 and GADD45 and augmented the DNA damage response to sublytic C5b-9–induced injury. These results show that sublytic C5b-9 induces DNA damage in vitro and in vivo and may explain why podocyte proliferation is limited following immune-mediated injury.
Jeffrey W. Pippin, Raghu Durvasula, Arndt Petermann, Keiju Hiromura, William G. Couser, Stuart J. Shankland
Cell migration and phagocytosis are both important for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and are critically dependent on the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Since CD44 is an adhesion molecule involved in inflammatory responses and is connected to the actin cytoskeleton, we investigated the role of CD44 in both these processes. Macrophage (Mφ) recruitment into M. tuberculosis–infected lungs and delayed-type hypersensitivity sites was impaired in CD44-deficient (CD44–/–) mice. In addition, the number of T lymphocytes and the concentration of the protective key cytokine IFN-γ were reduced in the lungs of infected CD44–/– mice. The production of IFN-γ by splenocytes of CD44–/– mice was profoundly increased upon antigen-specific stimulation. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that soluble CD44 can directly bind to virulent M. tuberculosis. Mycobacteria also interacted with Mφ-associated CD44, as reflected by reduced binding and internalization of bacilli by CD44–/– Mφs. This suggests that CD44 is a receptor on Mφs for binding of M. tuberculosis. CD44–/– mice displayed a decreased survival and an enhanced mycobacterial outgrowth in lungs and liver during pulmonary tuberculosis. In summary, we have identified CD44 as a new Mφ binding site for M. tuberculosis that mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, Mφ recruitment, and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis.
Jaklien C. Leemans, Sandrine Florquin, Mirjam Heikens, Steven T. Pals, Ronald van der Neut, Tom van der Poll
Andrei L. Kindzelskii, Ji-Biao Huang, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Ryan M. Fahmy, Yeon Mee Kim, Roberto Romero, Howard R. Petty
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