A transition from fetal hemoglobin (HbF) to adult hemoglobin (HbA) normally occurs within a few months after birth. Increased production of HbF after this period of infancy ameliorates clinical symptoms of the major disorders of adult β-hemoglobin: β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. The transcription factor BCL11A silences HbF and has been an attractive therapeutic target for increasing HbF levels; however, it is not clear to what extent BCL11A inhibits HbF production or mediates other developmental functions in humans. Here, we identified and characterized 3 patients with rare microdeletions of 2p15-p16.1 who presented with an autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay. Moreover, these patients all exhibited substantial persistence of HbF but otherwise retained apparently normal hematologic and immunologic function. Of the genes within 2p15-p16.1, only
Anindita Basak, Miroslava Hancarova, Jacob C. Ulirsch, Tugce B. Balci, Marie Trkova, Michal Pelisek, Marketa Vlckova, Katerina Muzikova, Jaroslav Cermak, Jan Trka, David A. Dyment, Stuart H. Orkin, Mark J. Daly, Zdenek Sedlacek, Vijay G. Sankaran
Rapidly cycling fetal and neonatal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate a pool of quiescent adult HSCs after establishing hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. We report an essential role for the trithorax group gene absent, small, or homeotic 1-like (
Morgan Jones, Jennifer Chase, Michelle Brinkmeier, Jing Xu, Daniel N. Weinberg, Julien Schira, Ann Friedman, Sami Malek, Jolanta Grembecka, Tomasz Cierpicki, Yali Dou, Sally A. Camper, Ivan Maillard
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first emerge during embryonic development within vessels such as the dorsal aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, suggesting that signals from the vascular microenvironment are critical for HSC development. Here, we demonstrated that AGM-derived endothelial cells (ECs) engineered to constitutively express AKT (AGM AKT-ECs) can provide an in vitro niche that recapitulates embryonic HSC specification and amplification. Specifically, nonengrafting embryonic precursors, including the VE-cadherin–expressing population that lacks hematopoietic surface markers, cocultured with AGM AKT-ECs specified into long-term, adult-engrafting HSCs, establishing that a vascular niche is sufficient to induce the endothelial-to-HSC transition in vitro. Subsequent to hematopoietic induction, coculture with AGM AKT-ECs also substantially increased the numbers of HSCs derived from VE-cadherin+CD45+ AGM hematopoietic cells, consistent with a role in supporting further HSC maturation and self-renewal. We also identified conditions that included NOTCH activation with an immobilized NOTCH ligand that were sufficient to amplify AGM-derived HSCs following their specification in the absence of AGM AKT-ECs. Together, these studies begin to define the critical niche components and resident signals required for HSC induction and self-renewal ex vivo, and thus provide insight for development of defined in vitro systems targeted toward HSC generation for therapeutic applications.
Brandon K. Hadland, Barbara Varnum-Finney, Michael G. Poulos, Randall T. Moon, Jason M. Butler, Shahin Rafii, Irwin D. Bernstein
The small GTPase RAP1 is critical for platelet activation and thrombus formation. RAP1 activity in platelets is controlled by the GEF CalDAG-GEFI and an unknown regulator that operates downstream of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor, P2Y12, a target of antithrombotic therapy. Here, we provide evidence that the GAP, RASA3, inhibits platelet activation and provides a link between P2Y12 and activation of the RAP1 signaling pathway. In mice, reduced expression of RASA3 led to premature platelet activation and markedly reduced the life span of circulating platelets. The increased platelet turnover and the resulting thrombocytopenia were reversed by concomitant deletion of the gene encoding CalDAG-GEFI.
Lucia Stefanini, David S. Paul, Raymond F. Robledo, E. Ricky Chan, Todd M. Getz, Robert A. Campbell, Daniel O. Kechele, Caterina Casari, Raymond Piatt, Kathleen M. Caron, Nigel Mackman, Andrew S. Weyrich, Matthew C. Parrott, Yacine Boulaftali, Mark D. Adams, Luanne L. Peters, Wolfgang Bergmeier
Macrocytic anemia with abnormal erythropoiesis is a common feature of megaloblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Here, we characterized a family with multiple female individuals who have macrocytic anemia. The proband was noted to have dyserythropoiesis and iron overload. After an extensive diagnostic evaluation that did not provide insight into the cause of the disease, whole-exome sequencing of multiple family members revealed the presence of a mutation in the X chromosomal gene
Vijay G. Sankaran, Jacob C. Ulirsch, Vassili Tchaikovskii, Leif S. Ludwig, Aoi Wakabayashi, Senkottuvelan Kadirvel, R. Coleman Lindsley, Rafael Bejar, Jiahai Shi, Scott B. Lovitch, David F. Bishop, David P. Steensma
Extracellular ATP is a signal of tissue damage and induces macrophage responses that amplify inflammation and coagulation. Here we demonstrate that ATP signaling through macrophage P2X7 receptors uncouples the thioredoxin (TRX)/TRX reductase (TRXR) system and activates the inflammasome through endosome-generated ROS. TRXR and inflammasome activity promoted filopodia formation, cellular release of reduced TRX, and generation of extracellular thiol pathway–dependent, procoagulant microparticles (MPs). Additionally, inflammasome-induced activation of an intracellular caspase-1/calpain cysteine protease cascade degraded filamin, thereby severing bonds between the cytoskeleton and tissue factor (TF), the cell surface receptor responsible for coagulation activation. This cascade enabled TF trafficking from rafts to filopodia and ultimately onto phosphatidylserine-positive, highly procoagulant MPs. Furthermore, caspase-1 specifically facilitated cell surface actin exposure, which was required for the final release of highly procoagulant MPs from filopodia. Together, the results of this study delineate a thromboinflammatory pathway and suggest that components of this pathway have potential as pharmacological targets to simultaneously attenuate inflammation and innate immune cell–induced thrombosis.
Andrea S. Rothmeier, Patrizia Marchese, Brian G. Petrich, Christian Furlan-Freguia, Mark H. Ginsberg, Zaverio M. Ruggeri, Wolfram Ruf
Posttranslationally modified proteins serve as autoimmunogenic targets in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Here, we identified a posttranslationally modified paraprotein target (paratargs) in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS), multiple myelomas (MM), and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemias (WM) using protein macroarrays that were sumoylated and screened for reactivity with paraproteins from MGUS, MM, and WM patients. We found that paraproteins from a proportion of European, African-American, and Japanese patients specifically reacted with the sumoylated heat-shock protein 90 β isoform-α (HSP90-SUMO1, where SUMO indicates
Klaus-Dieter Preuss, Michael Pfreundschuh, Natalie Fadle, Evi Regitz, Boris Kubuschok
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function is regulated by activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) counterbalance RTK signaling; however, the functions of receptor PTPs in HSCs remain incompletely understood. We found that a receptor PTP, PTPσ, was substantially overexpressed in mouse and human HSCs compared with more mature hematopoietic cells. Competitive transplantation of bone marrow cells from PTPσ-deficient mice revealed that the loss of PTPσ substantially increased long-term HSC-repopulating capacity compared with BM cells from control mice. While HSCs from PTPσ-deficient mice had no apparent alterations in cell-cycle status, apoptosis, or homing capacity, these HSCs exhibited increased levels of activated RAC1, a RhoGTPase that regulates HSC engraftment capacity. shRNA-mediated silencing of PTPσ also increased activated RAC1 levels in wild-type HSCs. Functionally, PTPσ-deficient BM cells displayed increased cobblestone area–forming cell (CAFC) capacity and augmented transendothelial migration capacity, which was abrogated by RAC inhibition. Specific selection of human cord blood CD34+CD38–CD45RA–lin– PTPσ– cells substantially increased the repopulating capacity of human HSCs compared with CD34+CD38–CD45RA–lin– cells and CD34+CD38–CD45RA–lin–PTPσ+ cells. Our results demonstrate that PTPσ regulates HSC functional capacity via RAC1 inhibition and suggest that selecting for PTPσ-negative human HSCs may be an effective strategy for enriching human HSCs for transplantation.
Mamle Quarmyne, Phuong L. Doan, Heather A. Himburg, Xiao Yan, Mai Nakamura, Liman Zhao, Nelson J. Chao, John P. Chute
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are highly susceptible to ionizing radiation–mediated death via induction of ROS, DNA double-strand breaks, and apoptotic pathways. The development of therapeutics capable of mitigating ionizing radiation–induced hematopoietic toxicity could benefit both victims of acute radiation sickness and patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Unfortunately, therapies capable of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution following lethal radiation exposure have remained elusive. Here, we found that systemic administration of pleiotrophin (PTN), a protein that is secreted by BM-derived endothelial cells, substantially increased the survival of mice following radiation exposure and after myeloablative BM transplantation. In both models, PTN increased survival by accelerating the recovery of BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vivo. PTN treatment promoted HSC regeneration via activation of the RAS pathway in mice that expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-zeta (PTPRZ), whereas PTN treatment did not induce RAS signaling in PTPRZ-deficient mice, suggesting that PTN-mediated activation of RAS was dependent upon signaling through PTPRZ. PTN strongly inhibited HSC cycling following irradiation, whereas RAS inhibition abrogated PTN-mediated induction of HSC quiescence, blocked PTN-mediated recovery of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and abolished PTN-mediated survival of irradiated mice. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of PTN to improve survival after myeloablation and suggest that PTN-mediated hematopoietic regeneration occurs in a RAS-dependent manner.
Heather A. Himburg, Xiao Yan, Phuong L. Doan, Mamle Quarmyne, Eva Micewicz, William McBride, Nelson J. Chao, Dennis J. Slamon, John P. Chute
In humans, vWF levels predict the risk of myocardial infarction and thrombosis; however, the factors that influence vWF levels are not completely understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified syntaxin-binding protein 5 (
Qiuyu Zhu, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Sara Ture, Maria de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez, Kyung Ae Ko, Kristina L. Modjeski, Michael B. LoMonaco, Andrew D. Johnson, Christopher J. O’Donnell, Yoshimi Takai, Craig N. Morrell, Charles J. Lowenstein
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a nonmalignant clonal disease of hematopoietic stem cells that is associated with hemolysis, marrow failure, and thrombophilia. PNH has been considered a monogenic disease that results from somatic mutations in the gene encoding PIGA, which is required for biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinisotol-anchored (GPI-anchored) proteins. The loss of certain GPI-anchored proteins is hypothesized to provide the mutant clone with an extrinsic growth advantage, but some features of PNH argue that there are intrinsic drivers of clonal expansion. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of paired PNH+ and PNH– fractions on samples taken from 12 patients as well as targeted deep sequencing of an additional 36 PNH patients. We identified additional somatic mutations that resulted in a complex hierarchical clonal architecture, similar to that observed in myeloid neoplasms. In addition to mutations in
Wenyi Shen, Michael J. Clemente, Naoko Hosono, Kenichi Yoshida, Bartlomiej Przychodzen, Tetsuichi Yoshizato, Yuichi Shiraishi, Satoru Miyano, Seishi Ogawa, Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski, Hideki Makishima
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked genes encoding several soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) regulators to cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because these regulatory proteins may directly affect platelet secretion, we used SNARE-containing complexes to affinity purify potential regulators from human platelet extracts. Syntaxin-binding protein 5 (STXBP5; also known as tomosyn-1) was identified by mass spectrometry, and its expression in isolated platelets was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that STXBP5 interacts with core secretion machinery complexes, such as syntaxin-11/SNAP23 heterodimers, and fractionation studies suggested that STXBP5 also interacts with the platelet cytoskeleton. Platelets from
Shaojing Ye, Yunjie Huang, Smita Joshi, Jinchao Zhang, Fanmuyi Yang, Guoying Zhang, Susan S. Smyth, Zhenyu Li, Yoshimi Takai, Sidney W. Whiteheart
Plasma fibronectin (pFn) has long been suspected to be involved in hemostasis; however, direct evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrated that pFn is vital to control bleeding in fibrinogen-deficient mice and in WT mice given anticoagulants. At the site of vessel injury, pFn was rapidly deposited and initiated hemostasis, even before platelet accumulation, which is considered the first wave of hemostasis. This pFn deposition was independent of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, β3 integrin, and platelets. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed pFn integration into fibrin, which increased fibrin fiber diameter and enhanced the mechanical strength of clots, as determined by thromboelastography. Interestingly, pFn promoted platelet aggregation when linked with fibrin but inhibited this process when fibrin was absent. Therefore, pFn may gradually switch from supporting hemostasis to inhibiting thrombosis and vessel occlusion following the fibrin gradient that decreases farther from the injured endothelium. Our data indicate that pFn is a supportive factor in hemostasis, which is vital under both genetic and therapeutic conditions of coagulation deficiency. By interacting with fibrin and platelet β3 integrin, pFn plays a self-limiting regulatory role in thrombosis, suggesting pFn transfusion may be a potential therapy for bleeding disorders, particularly in association with anticoagulant therapy.
Yiming Wang, Adili Reheman, Christopher M. Spring, Jalil Kalantari, Alexandra H. Marshall, Alisa S. Wolberg, Peter L. Gross, Jeffrey I. Weitz, Margaret L. Rand, Deane F. Mosher, John Freedman, Heyu Ni
Erika A. Tyburski, Scott E. Gillespie, William A. Stoy, Robert G. Mannino, Alexander J. Weiss, Alexa F. Siu, Rayford H. Bulloch, Karthik Thota, Anyela Cardenas, Wilena Session, Hanna J. Khoury, Siobhán O’Connor, Silvia T. Bunting, Jeanne Boudreaux, Craig R. Forest, Manila Gaddh, Traci Leong, L. Andrew Lyon, Wilbur A. Lam
The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias.
Yvette Y. Yien, Raymond F. Robledo, Iman J. Schultz, Naoko Takahashi-Makise, Babette Gwynn, Daniel E. Bauer, Abhishek Dass, Gloria Yi, Liangtao Li, Gordon J. Hildick-Smith, Jeffrey D. Cooney, Eric L. Pierce, Kyla Mohler, Tamara A. Dailey, Non Miyata, Paul D. Kingsley, Caterina Garone, Shilpa M. Hattangadi, Hui Huang, Wen Chen, Ellen M. Keenan, Dhvanit I. Shah, Thorsten M. Schlaeger, Salvatore DiMauro, Stuart H. Orkin, Alan B. Cantor, James Palis, Carla M. Koehler, Harvey F. Lodish, Jerry Kaplan, Diane M. Ward, Harry A. Dailey, John D. Phillips, Luanne L. Peters, Barry H. Paw
The proteasome inhibiter bortezomib has been successfully used to treat patients with relapsed multiple myeloma; however, many of these patients become thrombocytopenic, and it is not clear how the proteasome influences platelet production. Here we determined that pharmacologic inhibition of proteasome activity blocks proplatelet formation in human and mouse megakaryocytes. We also found that megakaryocytes isolated from mice deficient for PSMC1, an essential subunit of the 26S proteasome, fail to produce proplatelets. Consistent with decreased proplatelet formation, mice lacking PSMC1 in platelets (
Dallas S. Shi, Matthew C.P. Smith, Robert A. Campbell, Patrick W. Zimmerman, Zechariah B. Franks, Bjorn F. Kraemer, Kellie R. Machlus, Jing Ling, Patrick Kamba, Hansjörg Schwertz, Jesse W. Rowley, Rodney R. Miles, Zhi-Jian Liu, Martha Sola-Visner, Joseph E. Italiano Jr., Hilary Christensen, Walter H.A. Kahr, Dean Y. Li, Andrew S. Weyrich
Venous thrombi, fibrin- and rbc-rich clots triggered by inflammation and blood stasis, underlie devastating, and sometimes fatal, occlusive events. During intravascular fibrin deposition, rbc are thought to become passively trapped in thrombi and therefore have not been considered a modifiable thrombus component. In the present study, we determined that activity of the transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) is critical for rbc retention within clots and directly affects thrombus size. Compared with WT mice, mice carrying a homozygous mutation in the fibrinogen γ chain (
Maria M. Aleman, James R. Byrnes, Jian-Guo Wang, Reginald Tran, Wilbur A. Lam, Jorge Di Paola, Nigel Mackman, Jay L. Degen, Matthew J. Flick, Alisa S. Wolberg
Mutations within the gene encoding the DNA helicase RECQL4 underlie the autosomal recessive cancer-predisposition disorder Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, though it is unclear how these mutations lead to disease. Here, we demonstrated that somatic deletion of
Monique F. Smeets, Elisabetta DeLuca, Meaghan Wall, Julie M. Quach, Alistair M. Chalk, Andrew J. Deans, Jörg Heierhorst, Louise E. Purton, David J. Izon, Carl R. Walkley
Purinergic receptors of the P2Y family are G protein–coupled surface receptors that respond to extracellular nucleotides and can mediate responses to local cell damage. P2Y-dependent signaling contributes to thrombotic and/or inflammatory consequences of tissue injury by altering platelet and endothelial activation and immune cell phagocytosis. Here, we have demonstrated that P2Y14 modifies cell senescence and cell death in response to tissue stress, thereby enabling preservation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell function. In mice, P2Y14 deficiency had no demonstrable effect under homeostatic conditions; however, radiation stress, aging, sequential exposure to chemotherapy, and serial bone marrow transplantation increased senescence in animals lacking P2Y14. Enhanced senescence coincided with increased ROS, elevated p16INK4a expression, and hypophosphorylated Rb and was inhibited by treatment with a ROS scavenger or inhibition of p38/MAPK and JNK. Treatment of WT cells with pertussis toxin recapitulated the P2Y14 phenotype, suggesting that P2Y14 mediates antisenescence effects through Gi/o protein–dependent pathways. Primitive hematopoietic cells lacking P2Y14 were compromised in their ability to restore hematopoiesis in irradiated mice. Together, these data indicate that P2Y14 on stem/progenitor cells of the hematopoietic system inhibits cell senescence by monitoring and responding to the extracellular manifestations of tissue stress and suggest that P2Y14-mediated responses prevent the premature decline of regenerative capacity after injury.
Joonseok Cho, Rushdia Yusuf, Sungho Kook, Eyal Attar, Dongjun Lee, Baehang Park, Tao Cheng, David T. Scadden, Byeong Chel Lee
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that regulates multicellular functions through interactions with its receptors on cell surfaces. S1P is enriched and stored in erythrocytes; however, it is not clear whether alterations in S1P are involved in the prevalent and debilitating hemolytic disorder sickle cell disease (SCD). Here, using metabolomic screening, we found that S1P is highly elevated in the blood of mice and humans with SCD. In murine models of SCD, we demonstrated that elevated erythrocyte sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) underlies sickling and disease progression by increasing S1P levels in the blood. Additionally, we observed elevated SPHK1 activity in erythrocytes and increased S1P in blood collected from patients with SCD and demonstrated a direct impact of elevated SPHK1-mediated production of S1P on sickling that was independent of S1P receptor activation in isolated erythrocytes. Together, our findings provide insights into erythrocyte pathophysiology, revealing that a SPHK1-mediated elevation of S1P contributes to sickling and promotes disease progression, and highlight potential therapeutic opportunities for SCD.
Yujin Zhang, Vladimir Berka, Anren Song, Kaiqi Sun, Wei Wang, Weiru Zhang, Chen Ning, Chonghua Li, Qibo Zhang, Mikhail Bogdanov, Danny C. Alexander, Michael V. Milburn, Mostafa H. Ahmed, Han Lin, Modupe Idowu, Jun Zhang, Gregory J. Kato, Osheiza Y. Abdulmalik, Wenzheng Zhang, William Dowhan, Rodney E. Kellems, Pumin Zhang, Jianping Jin, Martin Safo, Ah-Lim Tsai, Harinder S. Juneja, Yang Xia