Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurring psychiatric illness that causes substantial health and socioeconomic burdens. Clinical reports have revealed that scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with MDD. Preclinical models suggest that these rapid antidepressant effects can be recapitulated with blockade of M1-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1-AChR); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic and behavioral responses to scopolamine have not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like effects of scopolamine are mediated by GABA interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Both GABAergic (GAD67+) interneurons and glutamatergic (CaMKII+) interneurons in the mPFC expressed M1-AChR. In mice, viral-mediated knockdown of M1-AChR specifically in GABAergic neurons, but not glutamatergic neurons, in the mPFC attenuated the antidepressant-like effects of scopolamine. Immunohistology and electrophysiology showed that somatostatin (SST) interneurons in the mPFC express M1-AChR at higher levels than parvalbumin interneurons. Moreover, knockdown of M1-AChR in SST interneurons in the mPFC demonstrated that M1-AChR expression in these neurons is required for the rapid antidepressant-like effects of scopolamine. These data indicate that SST interneurons in the mPFC are a promising pharmacological target for developing rapid-acting antidepressant therapies.
Eric S. Wohleb, Min Wu, Danielle M. Gerhard, Seth R. Taylor, Marina R. Picciotto, Meenakshi Alreja, Ronald S. Duman
Martina Absinta, Pascal Sati, Matthew Schindler, Emily C. Leibovitch, Joan Ohayon, Tianxia Wu, Alessandro Meani, Massimo Filippi, Steven Jacobson, Irene C.M. Cortese, Daniel S. Reich
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset degeneration of motor neurons that is commonly caused by mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Both patients and Tg mice expressing mutant human SOD1 (hSOD1) develop aggregates of unknown importance. In Tg mice, 2 different strains of hSOD1 aggregates (denoted A and B) can arise; however, the role of these aggregates in disease pathogenesis has not been fully characterized. Here, minute amounts of strain A and B hSOD1 aggregate seeds that were prepared by centrifugation through a density cushion were inoculated into lumbar spinal cords of 100-day-old mice carrying a human
Elaheh Ekhtiari Bidhendi, Johan Bergh, Per Zetterström, Peter M. Andersen, Stefan L. Marklund, Thomas Brännström
The endosome/lysosome pathway is disrupted early in the course of both Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS); however, it is not clear how dysfunction in this pathway influences the development of these diseases. Herein, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which endosomal dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of AD and DS. We determined that full-length amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its β-C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) act though increased activation of Rab5 to cause enlargement of early endosomes and to disrupt retrograde axonal trafficking of nerve growth factor (NGF) signals. The functional impacts of APP and its various products were investigated in PC12 cells, cultured rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs), and BFCNs from a mouse model of DS. We found that the full-length wild-type APP (APPWT) and β-CTF both induced endosomal enlargement and disrupted NGF signaling and axonal trafficking. β-CTF alone induced atrophy of BFCNs that was rescued by the dominant-negative Rab5 mutant, Rab5S34N. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative Rab5 construct markedly reduced APP-induced axonal blockage in
Wei Xu, April M. Weissmiller, Joseph A. White II, Fang Fang, Xinyi Wang, Yiwen Wu, Matthew L. Pearn, Xiaobei Zhao, Mariko Sawa, Shengdi Chen, Shermali Gunawardena, Jianqing Ding, William C. Mobley, Chengbiao Wu
GM2 gangliosidoses, including Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases, are neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases that are caused by deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A, which comprises an αβ heterodimer. There are no effective treatments for these diseases; however, various strategies aimed at restoring β-hexosaminidase A have been explored. Here, we produced a modified human hexosaminidase subunit β (HexB), which we have termed mod2B, composed of homodimeric β subunits that contain amino acid sequences from the α subunit that confer GM2 ganglioside–degrading activity and protease resistance. We also developed fluorescent probes that allow visualization of endocytosis of mod2B via mannose 6-phosphate receptors and delivery of mod2B to lysosomes in GM2 gangliosidosis models. In addition, we applied imaging mass spectrometry to monitor efficacy of this approach in Sandhoff disease model mice. Following i.c.v. administration, mod2B was widely distributed and reduced accumulation of GM2, asialo-GM2, and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate in brain regions including the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Moreover, mod2B administration markedly improved motor dysfunction and a prolonged lifespan in Sandhoff disease mice. Together, the results of our study indicate that mod2B has potential for intracerebrospinal fluid enzyme replacement therapy and should be further explored as a gene therapy for GM2 gangliosidoses.
Keisuke Kitakaze, Yasumichi Mizutani, Eiji Sugiyama, Chikako Tasaki, Daisuke Tsuji, Nobuo Maita, Takatsugu Hirokawa, Daisuke Asanuma, Mako Kamiya, Kohei Sato, Mitsutoshi Setou, Yasuteru Urano, Tadayasu Togawa, Akira Otaka, Hitoshi Sakuraba, Kohji Itoh
Vanishing white matter (VWM) is a fatal leukodystrophy that is caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Disease onset and severity are codetermined by genotype. White matter astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are almost exclusively affected; however, the mechanisms of VWM development remain unclear. Here, we used VWM mouse models, patients’ tissue, and cell cultures to investigate whether astrocytes or oligodendrocytes are the primary affected cell type. We generated 2 mouse models with mutations (
Stephanie Dooves, Marianna Bugiani, Nienke L. Postma, Emiel Polder, Niels Land, Stephen T. Horan, Anne-Lieke F. van Deijk, Aleid van de Kreeke, Gerbren Jacobs, Caroline Vuong, Jan Klooster, Maarten Kamermans, Joke Wortel, Maarten Loos, Lisanne E. Wisse, Gert C. Scheper, Truus E.M. Abbink, Vivi M. Heine, Marjo S. van der Knaap
Bernhard Voller, Emily Lines, Gayle McCrossin, Sule Tinaz, Codrin Lungu, George Grimes, Judith Starling, Gopal Potti, Peter Buchwald, Dietrich Haubenberger, Mark Hallett
Schwann cells produce myelin sheath around peripheral nerve axons. Myelination is critical for rapid propagation of action potentials, as illustrated by the large number of acquired and hereditary peripheral neuropathies, such as diabetic neuropathy or Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases, that are commonly associated with a process of demyelination. However, the early molecular events that trigger the demyelination program in these diseases remain unknown. Here, we used virally delivered fluorescent probes and in vivo time-lapse imaging in a mouse model of demyelination to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the demyelination process. We demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium released by voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) after sciatic nerve injury triggers Schwann cell demyelination via ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and c-JUN activation. In diabetic mice, VDAC1 activity was altered, resulting in a mitochondrial calcium leak in Schwann cell cytoplasm, thereby priming the cell for demyelination. Moreover, reduction of mitochondrial calcium release, either by shRNA-mediated VDAC1 silencing or pharmacological inhibition, prevented demyelination, leading to nerve conduction and neuromuscular performance recovery in rodent models of diabetic neuropathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases. Therefore, this study identifies mitochondria as the early key factor in the molecular mechanism of peripheral demyelination and opens a potential opportunity for the treatment of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies.
Sergio Gonzalez, Jade Berthelot, Jennifer Jiner, Claire Perrin-Tricaud, Ruani Fernando, Roman Chrast, Guy Lenaers, Nicolas Tricaud
Raymond P. Najjar, Jamie M. Zeitzer
Analogous behavioral assays are needed across animal models and human patients to improve translational research. Here, we examined the extent to which performance in the Morris water maze — the most frequently used behavioral assay of spatial learning and memory in rodents — translates to humans. We designed a virtual version of the assay for human subjects that includes the visible-target training, hidden-target learning, and probe trials that are typically administered in the mouse version. We compared transgenic mice that express human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) and patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease (MCI-AD) to evaluate the sensitivity of performance measures in detecting deficits. Patients performed normally during visible-target training, while hAPP mice showed procedural learning deficits. In hidden-target learning and probe trials, hAPP mice and MCI-AD patients showed similar deficits in learning and remembering the target location. In addition, we have provided recommendations for selecting performance measures and sample sizes to make these assays sensitive to learning and memory deficits in humans with MCI-AD and in mouse models. Together, our results demonstrate that with careful study design and analysis, the Morris maze is a sensitive assay for detecting AD-relevant impairments across species.
Katherine L. Possin, Pascal E. Sanchez, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Roland Fernandez, Geoffrey A. Kerchner, Erica T. Johnson, Allyson Davis, Iris Lo, Nicholas T. Bott, Thomas Kiely, Michelle C. Fenesy, Bruce L. Miller, Joel H. Kramer, Steven Finkbeiner
Recent studies have implicated chemokines in microglial activation and pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13) is a B lymphocyte chemoattractant that activates CXCR5. Using the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain, we found that CXCL13 was persistently upregulated in spinal cord neurons after SNL, resulting in spinal astrocyte activation via CXCR5 in mice. shRNA-mediated inhibition of CXCL13 in the spinal cord persistently attenuated SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Interestingly, CXCL13 expression was suppressed by miR-186-5p, a microRNA that colocalized with CXCL13 and was downregulated after SNL. Spinal overexpression of miR-186-5p decreased CXCL13 expression, alleviating neuropathic pain. Furthermore, SNL induced CXCR5 expression in spinal astrocytes, and neuropathic pain was abrogated in
Bao-Chun Jiang, De-Li Cao, Xin Zhang, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Li-Na He, Chun-Hua Li, Wen-Wen Zhang, Xiao-Bo Wu, Temugin Berta, Ru-Rong Ji, Yong-Jing Gao
Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD.
José R. Naranjo, Hongyu Zhang, Diego Villar, Paz González, Xose M. Dopazo, Javier Morón-Oset, Elena Higueras, Juan C. Oliveros, María D. Arrabal, Angela Prieto, Pilar Cercós, Teresa González, Alicia De la Cruz, Juan Casado-Vela, Alberto Rábano, Carmen Valenzuela, Marta Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Jia-Yi Li, Britt Mellström
Systemic inflammation causes malaise and general feelings of discomfort. This fundamental aspect of the sickness response reduces the quality of life for people suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases and is a nuisance during mild infections like common colds or the flu. To investigate how inflammation is perceived as unpleasant and causes negative affect, we used a behavioral test in which mice avoid an environment that they have learned to associate with inflammation-induced discomfort. Using a combination of cell-type–specific gene deletions, pharmacology, and chemogenetics, we found that systemic inflammation triggered aversion through MyD88-dependent activation of the brain endothelium followed by COX1-mediated cerebral prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Further, we showed that inflammation-induced PGE2 targeted EP1 receptors on striatal dopamine D1 receptor–expressing neurons and that this signaling sequence induced aversion through GABA-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic cells. Finally, we demonstrated that inflammation-induced aversion was not an indirect consequence of fever or anorexia but that it constituted an independent inflammatory symptom triggered by a unique molecular mechanism. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PGE2-mediated modulation of the dopaminergic motivational circuitry is a key mechanism underlying the negative affect induced by inflammation.
Michael Fritz, Anna M. Klawonn, Anna Nilsson, Anand Kumar Singh, Joanna Zajdel, Daniel Björk Wilhelms, Michael Lazarus, Andreas Löfberg, Maarit Jaarola, Unn Örtegren Kugelberg, Timothy R. Billiar, David J. Hackam, Chhinder P. Sodhi, Matthew D. Breyer, Johan Jakobsson, Markus Schwaninger, Günther Schütz, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna, Clifford B. Saper, Anders Blomqvist, David Engblom
According to the neurovascular hypothesis, impairment of low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein-1 (LRP1) in brain capillaries of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) brain accumulation and drives Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. However, due to conflicting reports on the involvement of LRP1 in Aβ transport and the expression of LRP1 in brain endothelium, the role of LRP1 at the BBB is uncertain. As global
Steffen E. Storck, Sabrina Meister, Julius Nahrath, Julius N. Meißner, Nils Schubert, Alessandro Di Spiezio, Sandra Baches, Roosmarijn E. Vandenbroucke, Yvonne Bouter, Ingrid Prikulis, Carsten Korth, Sascha Weggen, Axel Heimann, Markus Schwaninger, Thomas A. Bayer, Claus U. Pietrzik
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurological disorder that is associated with prominent movement and balance impairments that are widely considered to be due to defects of cerebellar origin. Here, using the cerebellar-specific vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) paradigm, we determined that cerebellar function is only mildly impaired in the
Caroline F. Bruinsma, Martijn Schonewille, Zhenyu Gao, Eleonora M.A. Aronica, Matthew C. Judson, Benjamin D. Philpot, Freek E. Hoebeek, Geeske M. van Woerden, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Ype Elgersma
Valproic acid (VPA) has been widely used for decades to treat epilepsy; however, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the anticonvulsant effects of nonacute VPA treatment involve preservation of the M-current, a low-threshold noninactivating potassium current, during seizures. In a wide variety of neurons, activation of Gq-coupled receptors, such as the m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, suppresses the M-current and induces hyperexcitability. We demonstrated that VPA treatment disrupts muscarinic suppression of the M-current and prevents resultant agonist-induced neuronal hyperexcitability. We also determined that VPA treatment interferes with M-channel signaling by inhibiting palmitoylation of a signaling scaffold protein, AKAP79/150, in cultured neurons. In a kainate-induced murine seizure model, administration of a dose of an M-channel inhibitor that did not affect kainate-induced seizure transiently eliminated the anticonvulsant effects of VPA. Retigabine, an M-channel opener that does not open receptor-suppressed M-channels, provided anticonvulsant effects only when administered prior to seizure induction in control animals. In contrast, treatment of VPA-treated mice with retigabine induced anticonvulsant effects even when administered after seizure induction. Together, these results suggest that receptor-induced M-current suppression plays a role in the pathophysiology of seizures and that preservation of the M-current during seizures has potential as an effective therapeutic strategy.
Hee Yeon Kay, Derek L. Greene, Seungwoo Kang, Anastasia Kosenko, Naoto Hoshi
Primary pain and touch sensory neurons not only detect internal and external sensory stimuli, but also receive inputs from other neurons. However, the neuronal derived inputs for primary neurons have not been systematically identified. Using a monosynaptic rabies viruses–based transneuronal tracing method combined with sensory-specific Cre-drivers, we found that sensory neurons receive intraganglion, intraspinal, and supraspinal inputs, the latter of which are mainly derived from the rostroventral medulla (RVM). The viral-traced central neurons were largely inhibitory but also consisted of some glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord and serotonergic neurons in the RVM. The majority of RVM-derived descending inputs were dual GABAergic and enkephalinergic (opioidergic). These inputs projected through the dorsolateral funiculus and primarily innervated layers I, II, and V of the dorsal horn, where pain-sensory afferents terminate. Silencing or activation of the dual GABA/enkephalinergic RVM neurons in adult animals substantially increased or decreased behavioral sensitivity, respectively, to heat and mechanical stimuli. These results are consistent with the fact that both GABA and enkephalin can exert presynaptic inhibition of the sensory afferents. Taken together, this work provides a systematic view of and a set of tools for examining peri- and extrasynaptic regulations of pain-afferent transmission.
Yi Zhang, Shengli Zhao, Erica Rodriguez, Jun Takatoh, Bao-Xia Han, Xiang Zhou, Fan Wang
Induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPS-derived) neural precursor cells may represent the ideal autologous cell source for cell-based therapy to promote remyelination and neuroprotection in myelin diseases. So far, the therapeutic potential of reprogrammed cells has been evaluated in neonatal demyelinating models. However, the repair efficacy and safety of these cells has not been well addressed in the demyelinated adult CNS, which has decreased cell plasticity and scarring. Moreover, it is not clear if these induced pluripotent–derived cells have the same reparative capacity as physiologically committed CNS-derived precursors. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of CNS-derived and skin-derived neural precursors in culture and following engraftment in murine models of adult spinal cord demyelination. Grafted induced neural precursors exhibited a high capacity for survival, safe integration, migration, and timely differentiation into mature bona fide oligodendrocytes. Moreover, grafted skin–derived neural precursors generated compact myelin around host axons and restored nodes of Ranvier and conduction velocity as efficiently as CNS-derived precursors while outcompeting endogenous cells. Together, these results provide important insights into the biology of reprogrammed cells in adult demyelinating conditions and support use of these cells for regenerative biomedicine of myelin diseases that affect the adult CNS.
Sabah Mozafari, Cecilia Laterza, Delphine Roussel, Corinne Bachelin, Antoine Marteyn, Cyrille Deboux, Gianvito Martino, Anne Baron-Van Evercooren
Hereditary retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), are characterized by the progressive loss of rod photoreceptors followed by loss of cones. While retinal gene therapy clinical trials demonstrated temporary improvement in visual function, this approach has yet to achieve sustained functional and anatomical rescue after disease onset in patients. The lack of sustained benefit could be due to insufficient transduction efficiency of viral vectors (“too little”) and/or because the disease is too advanced (“too late”) at the time therapy is initiated. Here, we tested the latter hypothesis and developed a mouse RP model that permits restoration of the mutant gene in all diseased photoreceptor cells, thereby ensuring sufficient transduction efficiency. We then treated mice at early, mid, or late disease stages. At all 3 time points, degeneration was halted and function was rescued for at least 1 year. Not only do our results demonstrate that gene therapy effectively preserves function after the onset of degeneration, our study also demonstrates that there is a broad therapeutic time window. Moreover, these results suggest that RP patients are treatable, despite most being diagnosed after substantial photoreceptor loss, and that gene therapy research must focus on improving transduction efficiency to maximize clinical impact.
Susanne F. Koch, Yi-Ting Tsai, Jimmy K. Duong, Wen-Hsuan Wu, Chun-Wei Hsu, Wei-Pu Wu, Luis Bonet-Ponce, Chyuan-Sheng Lin, Stephen H. Tsang
BACKGROUND: The disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (
METHODS: We measured cortical thickness, cortical surface area, subcortical volumes, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in healthy controls (HC) (
RESULTS: Based on cortical thickness, 72% of the T– group were assigned to the HC group, 83% of the T+ group were assigned to the SCZ group, and 45% of the BP group were classified as belonging to the SCZ group, suggesting high specificity of this measurement in predicting brain-related phenotypes. Shared brain-related phenotypes between SCZ and T+ individuals were found for cortical thickness only. Finally, a classification accuracy of 73% was achieved when directly comparing the pattern of cortical thickness of T+ and T– individuals.
CONCLUSION: Together, the results of this study suggest that the
FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Health Service Research Scotland, the Scottish Translational Medicine Research Collaboration, the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), The Wellcome Trust, the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), and Pfizer.
Orla M. Doyle, Catherine Bois, Pippa Thomson, Liana Romaniuk, Brandon Whitcher, Steven C.R. Williams, Federico E. Turkheimer, Hreinn Stefansson, Andrew M. McIntosh, Mitul A. Mehta, Stephen M. Lawrie