The MHC class I chain–related molecules (MICs) have previously been shown to be induced on most epithelial tumor cells. Engagement of MIC by the activating immune receptor NKG2D triggers NK cells and augments antigen-specific CTL anti-tumor immunity. The MIC-NKG2D system was proposed to participate in epithelial tumor immune surveillance. Paradoxically, studies suggest that tumors may evade MIC-NKG2D–mediated immunity by MIC shedding–induced impairment of effector cell function. Here we demonstrate the first evidence to our knowledge of a significant correlation of MIC shedding and deficiency in NK cell function with the grade of disease in prostate cancer. MIC is widely expressed in prostate carcinoma. The presence of surface target MIC, however, is counteracted by shedding. A significant increase in serum levels of soluble MIC (sMIC) and deficiency in NK cell function was shown in patients with advanced cancer. Finally, the deficiency in NK cell function can be overcome by treatment with IL-2 or IL-15 in vitro. Our results suggest that (a) deficiency in MIC-NKG2D immune surveillance may contribute to prostate cancer progression, (b) sMIC may be a novel biomarker for prostate cancer, and (c) using cytokines to restore MIC-NKG2D–mediated immunity may have clinical significance for prostate cancer in cell-based adaptive immunotherapy.
Jennifer D. Wu, Lily M. Higgins, Alexander Steinle, David Cosman, Kathy Haugk, Stephen R. Plymate
Cachexia is a syndrome characterized by wasting of skeletal muscle and contributes to nearly one-third of all cancer deaths. Cytokines and tumor factors mediate wasting by suppressing muscle gene products, but exactly which products are targeted by these cachectic factors is not well understood. Because of their functional relevance to muscle architecture, such targets are presumed to represent myofibrillar proteins, but whether these proteins are regulated in a general or a selective manner is also unclear. Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in vivo models of muscle wasting, that cachectic factors are remarkably selective in targeting myosin heavy chain. In myotubes and mouse muscles, TNF-α plus IFN-γ strongly reduced myosin expression through an RNA-dependent mechanism. Likewise, colon-26 tumors in mice caused the selective reduction of this myofibrillar protein, and this reduction correlated with wasting. Under these conditions, however, loss of myosin was associated with the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway, which suggests that mechanisms used to regulate the expression of muscle proteins may be cachectic factor specific. These results shed new light on cancer cachexia by revealing that wasting does not result from a general downregulation of muscle proteins but rather is highly selective as to which proteins are targeted during the wasting state.
Swarnali Acharyya, Katherine J. Ladner, Lori L. Nelsen, Jeffrey Damrauer, Peter J. Reiser, Steven Swoap, Denis C. Guttridge
Mutant isoforms of the KIT or PDGF receptors expressed by gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are considered the therapeutic targets for STI571 (imatinib mesylate; Gleevec), a specific inhibitor of these tyrosine kinase receptors. Case reports of clinical efficacy of Gleevec in GISTs lacking the typical receptor mutations prompted a search for an alternate mode of action. Here we show that Gleevec can act on host DCs to promote NK cell activation. DC-mediated NK cell activation was triggered in vitro and in vivo by treatment of DCs with Gleevec as well as by a loss-of-function mutation of KIT. Therefore, tumors that are refractory to the antiproliferative effects of Gleevec in vitro responded to Gleevec in vivo in an NK cell–dependent manner. Longitudinal studies of Gleevec-treated GIST patients revealed a therapy-induced increase in IFN-γ production by NK cells, correlating with an enhanced antitumor response. These data point to a novel mode of antitumor action for Gleevec.
Christophe Borg, Magali Terme, Julien Taïeb, Cédric Ménard, Caroline Flament, Caroline Robert, Koji Maruyama, Hiro Wakasugi, Eric Angevin, Kris Thielemans, Axel Le Cesne, Véronique Chung-Scott, Vladimir Lazar, Isabelle Tchou, Florent Crépineau, François Lemoine, Jacky Bernard, Jonhantan A. Fletcher, Ali Turhan, Jean-Yves Blay, Alain Spatz, Jean-François Emile, Michael C. Heinrich, Salah Mécheri, Thomas Tursz, Laurence Zitvogel
One mechanism contributing to immunologic unresponsiveness toward tumors may be presentation of tumor antigens by tolerogenic host APCs. We show that mouse tumor-draining LNs (TDLNs) contained a subset of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) that constitutively expressed immunosuppressive levels of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Despite comprising only 0.5% of LN cells, these pDCs in vitro potently suppressed T cell responses to antigens presented by the pDCs themselves and also, in a dominant fashion, suppressed T cell responses to third-party antigens presented by nonsuppressive APCs. Adoptive transfer of DCs from TDLNs into naive hosts created profound local T cell anergy, specifically toward antigens expressed by the transferred DCs. Anergy was prevented by targeted disruption of the IDO gene in the DCs or by administration of the IDO inhibitor drug 1-methyl-D-tryptophan to recipient mice. Within the population of pDCs, the majority of the functional IDO-mediated suppressor activity segregated with a novel subset of pDCs coexpressing the B-lineage marker CD19. We hypothesize that IDO-mediated suppression by pDCs in TDLNs creates a local microenvironment that is potently suppressive of host antitumor T cell responses.
David H. Munn, Madhav D. Sharma, Deyan Hou, Babak Baban, Jeffrey R. Lee, Scott J. Antonia, Jane L. Messina, Phillip Chandler, Pandelakis A. Koni, Andrew L. Mellor
Bone marrow of breast cancer patients was found to contain CD8+ T cells specific for peptides derived from breast cancer–associated proteins MUC1 and Her-2/neu. Most of these cells had a central or effector memory phenotype (CD45RA–CD62L+ or CD45RA–CD62L–, respectively). To test their in vivo function, we separated bone marrow–derived CD45RA+ naive or CD45RA–CD45RO+ memory T cells, stimulated them with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate, and transferred them into NOD/SCID mice bearing autologous breast tumors and normal skin transplants. CD45RA– memory but not CD45RA+ naive T cells infiltrated autologous tumor but not skin tissues after the transfer. These tumor-infiltrating cells had a central or effector memory phenotype and produced perforin. Many of them expressed the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 and were found around P-selectin+ tumor endothelium. Tumor infiltration included cluster formation in tumor tissue by memory T cells with cotransferred dendritic cells. It was associated with the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor reduction. We thus demonstrate selective homing of memory T cells to human tumors and suggest that tumor rejection is based on the recognition of tumor-associated antigens on tumor cells and dendritic cells by autologous specifically activated central and effector memory T cells.
Philipp Beckhove, Markus Feuerer, Mathias Dolenc, Florian Schuetz, Carmen Choi, Nora Sommerfeldt, Jochen Schwendemann, Katrin Ehlert, Peter Altevogt, Gunther Bastert, Volker Schirrmacher, Viktor Umansky
Deregulated expression of both Myc and Bcl-XL are consistent features of human plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs). To investigate whether targeted expression of Myc and Bcl-XL in mouse plasma cells might lead to an improved model of human PCN, we generated Myc transgenics by inserting a single-copy histidine-tagged mouse Myc gene, MycHis, into the mouse Ig heavy-chain Cα locus. We also generated Bcl-XL transgenic mice that contain a multicopy Flag-tagged mouse Bcl-xFlag transgene driven by the mouse Ig κ light-chain 3′ enhancer. Single-transgenic Bcl-XL mice remained tumor free by 380 days of age, whereas single-transgenic Myc mice developed B cell tumors infrequently (4 of 43, 9.3%). In contrast, double-transgenic Myc/Bcl-XL mice developed plasma cell tumors with short onset (135 days on average) and full penetrance (100% tumor incidence). These tumors produced monoclonal Ig, infiltrated the bone marrow, and contained elevated amounts of MycHis and Bcl-XLFlag proteins compared with the plasma cells that accumulated in large numbers in young tumor-free Myc/Bcl-XL mice. Our findings demonstrate that the enforced expression of Myc and Bcl-XL by Ig enhancers with peak activity in plasma cells generates a mouse model of human PCN that recapitulates some features of human multiple myeloma.
Wan Cheung Cheung, Joong Su Kim, Michael Linden, Liangping Peng, Brian Van Ness, Roberto D. Polakiewicz, Siegfried Janz
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene mutated in many human cancers, and its expression is reduced or absent in almost half of hepatoma patients. We used the Cre-loxP system to generate a hepatocyte-specific null mutation of Pten in mice (AlbCrePtenflox/flox mice). AlbCrePtenflox/flox mice showed massive hepatomegaly and steatohepatitis with triglyceride accumulation, a phenotype similar to human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Adipocyte-specific genes were induced in mutant hepatocytes, implying adipogenic-like transformation of these cells. Genes involved in lipogenesis and β-oxidation were also induced, possibly as a result of elevated levels of the transactivating factors PPARγ and SREBP1c. Importantly, the loss of Pten function in the liver led to tumorigenesis, with 47% of AlbCrePtenflox/flox livers developing liver cell adenomas by 44 weeks of age. By 74–78 weeks of age, 100% of AlbCrePtenflox/flox livers showed adenomas and 66% had hepatocellular carcinomas. AlbCrePtenflox/flox mice also showed insulin hypersensitivity. In vitro, AlbCrePtenflox/flox hepatocytes were hyperproliferative and showed increased hyperoxidation with abnormal activation of protein kinase B and MAPK. Pten is thus an important regulator of lipogenesis, glucose metabolism, hepatocyte homeostasis, and tumorigenesis in the liver.
Yasuo Horie, Akira Suzuki, Ei Kataoka, Takehiko Sasaki, Koichi Hamada, Junko Sasaki, Katsunori Mizuno, Go Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Kishimoto, Masahiro Iizuka, Makoto Naito, Katsuhiko Enomoto, Sumio Watanabe, Tak Wah Mak, Toru Nakano
The IL-12Rβ2 gene is expressed in human mature B cell subsets but not in transformed B cell lines. Silencing of this gene may be advantageous to neoplastic B cells. Our objective was to investigate the mechanism(s) and the functional consequence(s) of IL-12Rβ2 gene silencing in primary B cell tumors and transformed B cell lines. Purified tumor cells from 41 patients with different chronic B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, representing the counterparts of the major mature human B cell subsets, tested negative for IL-12Rβ2 gene expression. Hypermethylation of a CpG island in the noncoding exon 1 was associated with silencing of this gene in malignant B cells. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored IL-12Rβ2 mRNA expression in primary neoplastic B cells that underwent apoptosis following exposure to human recombinant IL-12 (hrIL-12). hrIL-12 inhibited proliferation and increased the apoptotic rate of IL-12Rβ2–transfected B cell lines in vitro. Finally, hrIL-12 strongly reduced the tumorigenicity of IL-12Rβ2–transfected Burkitt lymphoma RAJI cells in SCID-NOD mice through antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects, coupled with neoangiogenesis inhibition related to human IFN-γ–independent induction of hMig/CXCL9. The IL-12Rβ2 gene acts as tumor suppressor in chronic B cell malignancies, and IL-12 exerts direct antitumor effects on IL-12Rβ2–expressing neoplastic B cells.
Irma Airoldi, Emma Di Carlo, Barbara Banelli, Lidia Moserle, Claudia Cocco, Annalisa Pezzolo, Carlo Sorrentino, Edoardo Rossi, Massimo Romani, Alberto Amadori, Vito Pistoia
The clonotypic surface Ig receptor expressed by malignant B cells, idiotype, is a tumor-specific antigen and an attractive target for active immunotherapy. While Ab’s specific for tumor idiotype have been well described in patients with B cell malignancies, the precise antigenic epitopes in human idiotype recognized by autologous T cells remain largely unknown. We report here that T cell lines generated from lymphoma patients actively immunized with idiotype protein specifically recognized multiple, unique immunodominant epitopes in autologous tumor idiotype. Synthetic peptides corresponding to hypervariable, but not framework, regions of Ig heavy chain specifically stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate and secrete proinflammatory cytokines in an MHC-associated manner. Detailed analysis revealed a minimal determinant of an immunodominant epitope, comprising critical residues at the amino terminus that may be a product of somatic hypermutation. Association of idiotype-specific T cell responses with previously documented molecular remissions in idiotype-vaccinated patients suggests that the newly identified T cell epitopes may be clinically relevant. Such antigenic epitopes may serve as candidates for novel peptide-vaccine strategies, and as tools to selectively expand tumor antigen–specific T cells for adoptive immunotherapy and for monitoring T cell immunity in vaccinated patients.
Sivasubramanian Baskar, Carol B. Kobrin, Larry W. Kwak
Accurate diagnosis of thyroid tumors is challenging. A particular problem is distinguishing between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), where histology of fine-needle aspirates is not conclusive. It is often necessary to remove healthy thyroid to rule out carcinoma. In order to find markers to improve diagnosis, we quantified gene transcript expression from FTC, FTA, and normal thyroid, revealing 73 differentially expressed transcripts (P ≤ 0.0001). Using an independent set of 23 FTCs, FTAs, and matched normal thyroids, 17 genes with large expression differences were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Four genes (DDIT3, ARG2, ITM1, and C1orf24) differed between the two classes FTC and FTA, and a linear combination of expression levels distinguished FTC from FTA with an estimated predictive accuracy of 0.83. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for DDIT3 and ARG2 showed consistent staining for carcinoma in an independent set 59 follicular tumors (estimated concordance, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, [0.59, 0.93]). A simple test based on a combination of these markers might improve preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules, allowing better treatment decisions and reducing long-term health costs.
Janete M. Cerutti, Rosana Delcelo, Marcelo João Amadei, Claudia Nakabashi, Rui M.B. Maciel, Bercedis Peterson, Jennifer Shoemaker, Gregory J. Riggins
Ectopic gene expression in tumors versus normal somatic tissues provides opportunities for the specific immunotargeting of cancer cells. SSX gene products are expressed in tumors of different histological types and can be recognized by tumor-reactive CTLs from cancer patients. Here, we report the identification of an SSX-2–derived immunodominant T cell epitope recognized by CD4+ T cells from melanoma patients in association with HLA-DR. The epitope maps to the 37–58 region of the protein, encompassing the sequence of the previously defined HLA-A2–restricted immunodominant epitope SSX-241–49. SSX-237–58–specific CD4+ T cells were detected among circulating lymphocytes from the majority of melanoma patients analyzed and among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, but not in healthy donors. Together, our data suggest a dominant role of the 37–58 sequence in the induction of cellular CD4+ T cell responses against SSX antigens and will be instrumental for both the onset and the monitoring of upcoming cancer-vaccine trials using SSX-derived immunogens.
Maha Ayyoub, Charles S. Hesdorffer, Monica Montes, Andrea Merlo, Daniel Speiser, Donata Rimoldi, Jean-Charles Cerottini, Gerd Ritter, Matthew Scanlan, Lloyd J. Old, Danila Valmori
Lymphangiogenesis, an important initial step in tumor metastasis and transplant sensitization, is mediated by the action of VEGF-C and -D on VEGFR3. In contrast, VEGF-A binds VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 and is an essential hemangiogenic factor. We re-evaluated the potential role of VEGF-A in lymphangiogenesis using a novel model in which both lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis are induced in the normally avascular cornea. Administration of VEGF Trap, a receptor-based fusion protein that binds and neutralizes VEGF-A but not VEGF-C or -D, completely inhibited both hemangiogenesis and the outgrowth of LYVE-1+ lymphatic vessels following injury. Furthermore, both lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis were significantly reduced in mice transgenic for VEGF-A164/164 or VEGF-A188/188 (each of which expresses only one of the three principle VEGF-A isoforms). Because VEGF-A is chemotactic for macrophages and we demonstrate here that macrophages in inflamed corneas release lymphangiogenic VEGF-C/VEGF-D, we evaluated the possibility that macrophage recruitment plays a role in VEGF-A–mediated lymphangiogenesis. Either systemic depletion of all bone marrow–derived cells (by irradiation) or local depletion of macrophages in the cornea (using clodronate liposomes) prior to injury significantly inhibited both hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. We conclude that VEGF-A recruitment of monocytes/macrophages plays a crucial role in inducing inflammatory neovascularization by supplying/amplifying signals essential for pathological hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
Claus Cursiefen, Lu Chen, Leonardo P. Borges, David Jackson, Jingtai Cao, Czeslaw Radziejewski, Patricia A. D’Amore, M. Reza Dana, Stanley J. Wiegand, J. Wayne Streilein
One of the major problems in management of prostate cancer is the lack of reliable genetic markers predicting the clinical course of the disease. We analyzed expression profiles of 12,625 transcripts in prostate tumors from patients with distinct clinical outcomes after therapy as well as metastatic human prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. We identified small clusters of genes discriminating recurrent versus nonrecurrent disease with 90% and 75% accuracy in two independent cohorts of patients. We examined one group of samples (21 tumors) to discover the recurrence predictor genes and then validated the predictive power of these genes in a different set (79 tumors). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that recurrence predictor signatures are highly informative (P < 0.0001) in stratification of patients into subgroups with distinct relapse-free survival after therapy. A gene expression–based recurrence predictor algorithm was informative in predicting the outcome in patients with early-stage disease, with either high or low preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels and provided additional value to the outcome prediction based on Gleason sum or multiparameter nomogram. Overall, 88% of patients with recurrence of prostate cancer within 1 year after therapy were correctly classified into the poor-prognosis group. The identified algorithm provides additional predictive value over conventional markers of outcome and appears suitable for stratification of prostate cancer patients at the time of diagnosis into subgroups with distinct survival probability after therapy.
Gennadi V. Glinsky, Anna B. Glinskii, Andrew J. Stephenson, Robert M. Hoffman, William L. Gerald
Oncogenic ras alleles are among the most common mutations found in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previously, the role of oncogenic ras in cancer was assessed in model systems overexpressing oncogenic ras from heterologous promoters. However, there is increasing evidence that subtle differences in gene dosage and regulation of gene expression from endogenous promoters play critical roles in cancer pathogenesis. We characterized the role of oncogenic K-ras expressed from its endogenous promoter in the hematopoietic system using a conditional allele and IFN-inducible, Cre-mediated recombination. Mice developed a completely penetrant myeloproliferative syndrome characterized by leukocytosis with normal maturation of myeloid lineage cells; myeloid hyperplasia in bone marrow; and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and liver. Flow cytometry confirmed the myeloproliferative phenotype. Genotypic and Western blot analysis demonstrated Cre-mediated excision and expression, respectively, of the oncogenic K-ras allele. Bone marrow cells formed growth factor–independent colonies in methylcellulose cultures, but the myeloproliferative disease was not transplantable into secondary recipients. Thus, oncogenic K-ras induces a myeloproliferative disorder but not AML, indicating that additional mutations are required for AML development. This model system will be useful for assessing the contribution of cooperating mutations in AML and testing ras inhibitors in vivo.
Iris T. Chan, Jeffery L. Kutok, Ifor R. Williams, Sarah Cohen, Lauren Kelly, Hirokazu Shigematsu, Leisa Johnson, Koichi Akashi, David A. Tuveson, Tyler Jacks, D. Gary Gilliland
Avicins are proapoptotic and anti-inflammatory triterpene electrophiles isolated from an Australian desert tree, Acacia victoriae. The presence of two α,β unsaturated carbonyl groups (Michael reaction sites) in the side chain of the avicin molecule prompted us to study its effects on NF-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox-regulated transcription factor that controls the expression of a battery of detoxification and antioxidant proteins via its binding to antioxidant response element (ARE). Avicin D–treated Hep G2 cells showed translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus and a time-dependent increase in ARE activity. These properties were sensitive to DTT, suggesting that avicins affect one or more critical cysteine residues, probably on the Keap1 molecule. Downstream of ARE, an activation of a battery of stress-induced proteins occurred. The implications of these findings were evaluated in vivo in mouse skin exposed to an ancient stressor, UV light. Avicins inhibited epidermal hyperplasia, reduced p53 mutation, enhanced apoptosis, decreased generation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, and enhanced expression of NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and heme oxygenase-1. These data, combined with our earlier published work, demonstrate that avicins represent a new class of plant stress metabolites capable of activating stress adaptation and suppressing proinflammatory components of the innate immune system in human cells by redox regulation. The relevance for treatment of clinical diseases in which stress responses are dysfunctional or deficient is discussed.
Valsala Haridas, Margaret Hanausek, Goshi Nishimura, Holly Soehnge, Amos Gaikwad, Maciej Narog, Erick Spears, Robert Zoltaszek, Zbigniew Walaszek, Jordan U. Gutterman
The NF1 tumor suppressor gene encodes a GTPase-activating protein called neurofibromin that negatively regulates Ras signaling. Mutations in NF1 cause neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The development of neurofibromas, which are complex tumors composed of multiple cell types, is a hallmark of NF1. Somatic inactivation of murine Nf1 in Schwann cells is necessary, but not sufficient, to initiate neurofibroma formation. Neurofibromas occur with high penetrance in mice in which Nf1 is ablated in Schwann cells in the context of a heterozygous mutant (Nf1+/–) microenvironment. Mast cells infiltrate neurofibromas, where they secrete proteins that can remodel the ECM and initiate angiogenesis. Thus, identification of mechanisms responsible for mast cell migration to tumor microenvironments is important for understanding tumorigenesis and for designing potential therapies. Here, we show that homozygous Nf1 mutant (Nf1–/–) Schwann cells secrete Kit ligand (KitL), which stimulates mast cell migration, and that Nf1+/– mast cells are hypermotile in response to KitL. Furthermore, we link hyperactivation of the Ras-class IA-PI3K-Rac2 pathway to increased Nf1+/– mast cell migration. Thus, these studies identify a novel interaction between Nf1–/– Schwann cells and Nf1+/– mast cells that is likely to be important in neurofibroma formation.
Yang Feng-Chun, David A. Ingram, Shi Chen, Cynthia M. Hingtgen, Nancy Ratner, Kelly R. Monk, Travis Clegg, Hilary White, Laura Mead, Mary Jo Wenning, David A. Williams, Reuben Kapur, Simon J. Atkinson, D. Wade Clapp
Chronic infection and associated inflammation are key contributors to human carcinogenesis. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an oxyradical overload disease and is characterized by free radical stress and colon cancer proneness. Here we examined tissues from noncancerous colons of ulcerative colitis patients to determine (a) the activity of two base excision–repair enzymes , AAG, the major 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase, and APE1, the major apurinic site endonuclease; and (b) the prevalence of microsatellite instability (MSI). AAG and APE1 were significantly increased in UC colon epithelium undergoing elevated inflammation and MSI was positively correlated with their imbalanced enzymatic activities. These latter results were supported by mechanistic studies using yeast and human cell models in which overexpression of AAG and/or APE1 was associated with frameshift mutations and MSI. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the adaptive and imbalanced increase in AAG and APE1 is a novel mechanism contributing to MSI in patients with UC and may extend to chronic inflammatory or other diseases with MSI of unknown etiology.
Lorne J. Hofseth, Mohammed A. Khan, Mark Ambrose, Olga Nikolayeva, Meng Xu-Welliver, Maria Kartalou, S. Perwez Hussain, Richard B. Roth, Xiaoling Zhou, Leah E. Mechanic, Irit Zurer, Varda Rotter, Leona D. Samson, Curtis C. Harris
Malignant cells often display defects in autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved pathway for degrading long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. However, as yet, there is no genetic evidence for a role of autophagy genes in tumor suppression. The beclin 1 autophagy gene is monoallelically deleted in 40–75% of cases of human sporadic breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Therefore, we used a targeted mutant mouse model to test the hypothesis that monoallelic deletion of beclin 1 promotes tumorigenesis. Here we show that heterozygous disruption of beclin 1 increases the frequency of spontaneous malignancies and accelerates the development of hepatitis B virus–induced premalignant lesions. Molecular analyses of tumors in beclin 1 heterozygous mice show that the remaining wild-type allele is neither mutated nor silenced. Furthermore, beclin 1 heterozygous disruption results in increased cellular proliferation and reduced autophagy in vivo. These findings demonstrate that beclin 1 is a haplo-insufficient tumor-suppressor gene and provide genetic evidence that autophagy is a novel mechanism of cell-growth control and tumor suppression. Thus, mutation of beclin 1 or other autophagy genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of human cancers.
Xueping Qu, Jie Yu, Govind Bhagat, Norihiko Furuya, Hanina Hibshoosh, Andrea Troxel, Jeffrey Rosen, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Noboru Mizushima, Yoshinori Ohsumi, Giorgio Cattoretti, Beth Levine
Prostate cancer is one of the most diagnosed and mortal cancers in western countries. A major clinical problem is the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) during antihormonal treatment. The molecular mechanisms underlying the change from androgen dependence to independence of these tumors are poorly understood and represent a challenge to develop new therapies. Based on genetic data showing amplification of the c-myc gene in AIPC, we studied the ability of c-myc to confer AIPC cell growth. Human androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells overexpressing c-myc grew independently of androgens and presented tumorigenic properties in androgen-depleted conditions. Analysis of signalling pathways by pharmacological inhibitors of the androgen receptor (AR) or by RNA interference directed against AR or c-myc showed that c-myc acted downstream of AR through multiple growth effectors. Thus c-myc is required for androgen-dependent growth and following ectopic expression can induce androgen-independent growth. Moreover, RNA interference directed against c-myc showed that growth of human AIPC cells, AR-positive or -negative, required c-myc expression. Furthermore, we showed that c-myc–overexpressing cells retain a functional p53 pathway and thus respond to etoposide.
David Bernard, Albin Pourtier-Manzanedo, Jesús Gil, David H. Beach
Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a familial tumor syndrome due to mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, in which progression to malignancy is rare. Primary Tsc2–/– murine embryo fibroblast cultures display early senescence with overexpression of p21CIP1/WAF1 that is rescued by loss of TP53. Tsc2–/–TP53–/– cells, as well as tumors from Tsc2+/– mice, display an mTOR-activation signature with constitutive activation of S6K, which is reverted by treatment with rapamycin. Rapamycin also reverts a growth advantage of Tsc2–/–TP53–/– cells. Tsc1/Tsc2 does not bind directly to mTOR, however, nor does it directly influence mTOR kinase activity or cellular phosphatase activity. There is a marked reduction in Akt activation in Tsc2–/–TP53–/– and Tsc1–/– cells in response to serum and PDGF, along with a reduction in cell ruffling. PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expression is markedly reduced in both the cell lines and Tsc mouse renal cystadenomas, and ectopic expression of PDGFRβ in Tsc2-null cells restores Akt phosphorylation in response to serum, PDGF, EGF, and insulin. This activation of mTOR along with downregulation of PDGFR PI3K-Akt signaling in cells lacking Tsc1 or Tsc2 may explain why these genes are rarely involved in human cancer. This is in contrast to PTEN, which is a negative upstream regulator of this pathway.
Hongbing Zhang, Gregor Cicchetti, Hiroaki Onda, Henry B. Koon, Kirsten Asrican, Natalia Bajraszewski, Francisca Vazquez, Christopher L. Carpenter, David J. Kwiatkowski