The effects of interferons (IFNs) on lymphocyte adhesion to cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EC) were investigated using an in vitro assay. Endothelial cells obtained from umbilical vein were first cultured at a low density with a conditioned medium (CM) from 12-O-tetra decanoylphorbol 13-acetate-concanavalin A (TPA-Con A) stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), or with recombinant (r) gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) or r alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), and then were incubated with freshly isolated PBL. Natural IFN-gamma in the TPA-Con A CM and rIFN-gamma (12.5-500 U/ml) induced major histocompatibility complex-class II antigens (HLA-DR, HLA-DP, and HLA-DQ) and significant lymphocyte adhesion to the EC, whereas rIFN-alpha did not. The lymphocyte adhesion to the EC and the expression of DR antigens on the EC were well correlated in terms of both kinetics and the dose-response pattern of rIFN-gamma. When EC expressing I region associated (Ia) antigen were preincubated with monoclonal anti-DR antibody before the addition of lymphocytes, the lymphocyte adhesion was significantly inhibited in both allogeneic and syngeneic combinations, whereas anti-HLA-DP, anti-HLA-DQ, and anti-HLA-ABC antibodies did not inhibit the binding at all. Cell fractionation experiments indicated that the majority of lymphocytes adhering to Ia-expressed EC were Leu-3+ T cells, whose binding was again almost completely inhibited by anti-DR antibody. Moreover, anti-Leu-3a, but not anti-Leu-2a, antibody effectively inhibited the T cell adhesion to the EC. These results strongly suggest that the interaction of the Leu-3(T4) receptor of T cells with IFN-gamma-induced DR antigens on EC plays a central role in the selective adhesion of Leu-3+ T cell to EC.
J Masuyama, N Minato, S Kano
To determine the incidence of elevated levels of serum methylmalonic acid in patients with cobalamin deficiency, we utilized a new capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique to measure methylmalonic acid in the serum of 73 patients with clinically confirmed cobalamin deficiency. Values ranged from 55 to 22,300 ng/ml, and 69 of the 73 patients had values above the normal range of 19-76 ng/ml as determined for 50 normal blood donors. In the cobalamin-deficient patients, serum methylmalonic acid was significantly correlated with the serum folate level and the degree of neurologic involvement. Some patients with pernicious anemia who were intermittently treated with cyanocobalamin were found to have elevated serum levels of methylmalonic acid while free of hematologic and neurologic abnormalities. A cobalamin-deficient patient is described with a normal serum cobalamin and an elevated serum methylmalonic acid. We conclude that the ability to measure methylmalonic acid in human serum will be useful in studies designed to determine the incidence of cobalamin deficiency in various patient populations.
S P Stabler, P D Marcell, E R Podell, R H Allen, J Lindenbaum
We previously demonstrated that human embryonic mesenchymal cells derived from the palate (HEMP cells) retain alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content and capacity for collagen synthesis after long-term culture, and their growth is markedly stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). There was a dramatic decrease in ALP content and capacity to synthesize collagen in HEMP cells (HEMP-RV cells) persistently infected with rubella virus (RV). EGF increased ALP activity and decreased collagen synthesis in HEMP cells, whereas EGF showed no effect on these activities in HEMP-RV cells. Growth of HEMP-RV cells was slightly reduced compared with that of HEMP cells. EGF stimulated growth of HEMP cells and to a lesser extent of HEMP-RV cells. Binding of 125I-EGF to cell-surface receptors in HEMP-RV cells was, to our surprise, twice as much as that in HEMP cells. However, internalization of bound 125I-EGF in HEMP-RV cells was profoundly diminished. Thus, persistent RV infection causes not only changes in HEMP cell growth and differentiation but a decrease in or loss of HEMP cell responsiveness to EGF. The effects of persistent RV infection on palatal cell differentiation as well as growth may be responsible for the pathogenesis of congenital rubella. Furthermore, since HEMP cells appear to be closely related to osteoblasts, these results suggest a mechanism for RV-induced osseous abnormalities manifested in congenital rubella patients.
T Yoneda, M Urade, M Sakuda, T Miyazaki
1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) has been demonstrated to inhibit hepatic 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD) production. Changes in cytosolic calcium have been shown to regulate cellular processes. Using the fluorescent dye Quin 2, we have investigated the effects of 1,25(OH)2D and 24,25(OH)2D on cytosolic calcium levels in hepatocytes. 1,25(OH)2D exposure for 5 min increases cytosolic calcium levels by 24% at a concentration of 100 pg/ml, 39% at a concentration of 1 ng/ml, and 50% at a concentration of 2 ng/ml. The latter increment occurs in both the presence and absence of extracellular calcium, indicating that 1,25(OH)2D is mobilizing intracellular calcium pools. 24,25(OH)2D, 10 ng/ml, does not increase cytosolic calcium levels while the calcium ionophore A23187, 3 microM, increases levels by 52%. Calcium inhibits hepatic 25 OHD synthesis in liver homogenates in a dose-dependent fashion, which can be prevented by chelation of calcium with EGTA. 1,25(OH)2D and A23187 decrease hepatocyte 25 OHD synthesis. The inhibitory effect of A23187 can be prevented by chelation of extracellular calcium. The data demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D increases hepatocyte cytosolic calcium, and that these increments in cytosolic calcium may regulate some of the hepatic actions of the vitamin D metabolite.
D T Baran, M L Milne
Transformation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus and rapid screening on rat insulinoma cells by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to identify monoclonal autoantibodies that reacted with human pancreatic islets. Six such monoclonal autoantibodies were isolated and cloned. All six also were found to react with human thyroid. It is concluded that lymphocytes able to make autoantibodies that react with both the pancreas and thyroid are common in the human B cell repertoire.
C Garzelli, F E Taub, M C Jenkins, D W Drell, F Ginsberg-Fellner, A L Notkins
Interferons (IFN) elicit antiviral and antineoplastic activities by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. The binding characteristics of IFN to human lymphocytes were studied using IFN alpha 2 labeled with 125I to high specific activity. The specific binding curves generated were analyzed by the LIGAND program of Munson and Rodbard to determine receptor numbers. The number of receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tonsillar B-lymphocytes (TBL) from normal individuals were 505 +/- 293 (n = 10) and 393 +/- 147 (n = 3) respectively. When these cells were preincubated in vitro with unlabeled IFN alpha 2, the receptor number decreased to 82 +/- 45 and 61 +/- 16 respectively. Receptor binding activities recovered gradually over a period of 72 h when the cells were incubated in IFN-free medium. This recovery of receptors could be blocked by the addition of actinomycin D to the incubation medium. A similar decrease in receptor expression was observed in vivo in PBL from patients being treated daily with 5 X 10(6) units/m2 per d of IFN alpha 2 by subcutaneous injection, for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or papilloma virus infections. Receptor numbers in PBL in vivo were further reduced concurrent with the progression of IFN therapy. Thus the reduction in IFN receptor expression observed in vitro can be demonstrated in vivo. These studies indicate that monitoring IFN receptor expression in vivo can provide information regarding the availability of IFN receptors at the cell surface for the mediation of IFN actions during the course of IFN therapy.
A S Lau, G E Hannigan, M H Freedman, B R Williams
Studies were undertaken to characterize the pattern of proximal tubular fluid (APRH2O) and bicarbonate reabsorption (APRHCO3) in the remnant kidney of euvolemic Munich-Wistar rats. The remnant kidney rats were placed on a diet containing either low or normal protein. Collections were obtained in the early, mid-, and late proximal convoluted tubule. Single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) increased from 40.2 nl/min in controls to 58.8 nl/min in low protein remnant kidney and 78.1 nl/min in normal protein remnant kidney rats. The filtered load of bicarbonate was 1,272, 1,641, and 2,013 pmol/min, in the three groups, respectively. APRH2O and APRHCO3 increased nearly in parallel. Most of the increase in reabsorption occurred in the early proximal tubule. Tubular hypertrophy could account for at least 20-40% of the increase in reabsorption, but the majority of the increase appeared to be a delivery-dependent response similar to that observed in normal rats after an acute increase in SNGFR.
D A Maddox, J F Horn, F C Famiano, F J Gennari
The effects of changes in peritubular pH, carbon dioxide tension (PCO2), and HCO3- concentration on net HCO3- transport was examined in in vitro perfused cortical collecting tubules (CCTs) from unpretreated New Zealand white rabbits. Lowering peritubular HCO3- concentration and pH by reciprocal replacement of HCO3- with Cl-, significantly stimulated net HCO3- absorption. Lowering peritubular HCO3- concentration and pH, by substitution of HCO3- with gluconate, while keeping Cl- concentration constant, also stimulated net HCO3- absorption. Raising peritubular HCO3- concentration and pH, by reciprocal replacement of Cl- with HCO3-, inhibited net HCO3- absorption (or stimulated net HCO3- secretion). When the tubule was cooled, raising peritubular HCO3- concentration had no effect on net HCO3- transport, suggesting these results are not due to the passive flux of HCO3- down its concentration gradient. The effect of changes in ambient PCO2 on net HCO3- transport were also studied. Increasing the ambient PCO2 from 40 mmHg to either 80 or 120 mmHg, allowing pH to fall, had no effect on net HCO3- transport. Similarly, lowering ambient PCO2 to 14 mmHg had no effect on net HCO3- transport. Simultaneously increasing peritubular HCO3- concentration and PCO2, without accompanying changes in peritubular pH, i.e., isohydric changes, stimulated net HCO3- secretion to the same degree as nonisohydric increases in peritubular HCO3- concentration. Likewise, isohydric lowering of peritubular HCO3- concentration and PCO2 stimulated net HCO3- absorption. We conclude that: acute changes in peritubular HCO3- concentration regulate acidification in the CCT and these effects are mediated by a transcellular process; acute changes in ambient PCO2 within the physiologic range have no effect on HCO3- transport in the in vitro perfused CCT; and acute in vitro regulation of CCT acidification is independent of peritubular pH.
M D Breyer, J P Kokko, H R Jacobson
We report the beneficial effects of calcium infusions in a child with hereditary resistance to 1,25(OH)2D and alopecia. This patient after transient responsiveness to vitamin D derivatives became unresponsive to all therapy despite serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations maintained at levels approximately 100-fold normal. A 7-mo trial with calcium infusions led to correction of biochemical abnormalities and healing of rickets. Bone biopsies (n = 3) showed a normal mineralization and the disappearance of the osteomalacia. Cultures of bone-derived cells demonstrated a lack of activation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase and osteocalcin synthesis by 1,25(OH)2D3 (10(-9) and 10(-6) M). These results demonstrate that even in the absence of a normal 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor-effector system in bone cells, normal mineralization can be achieved in humans if adequate serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations are maintained; and calcium infusions may be an efficient alternative for the management of patients with this condition who are unresponsive to large doses of vitamin D derivatives.
S Balsan, M Garabédian, M Larchet, A M Gorski, G Cournot, C Tau, A Bourdeau, C Silve, C Ricour
Young female mice fed a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet rapidly develop acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis. We have observed that pancreatic acini prepared from these mice are unable to secrete amylase in response to addition of the cholinergic agonist carbachol, although they retain the ability to secrete amylase in response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. The CDE diet does not alter the binding characteristics (Kd or the maximal number of binding sites) for muscarinic cholinergic receptors as tested using the antagonist [3H]N-methylscopolamine nor the competition for this binding by carbachol. Addition of carbachol to acini prepared from mice fed the CDE diet does not result in as marked an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels as that noted in control samples (evaluated using quin2 fluorescence). These observations indicate that the CDE diet interferes with stimulus-secretion coupling in mouse pancreatic acini at a step subsequent to hormone-receptor binding and prior to Ca2+ release. This conclusion is confirmed by our finding that the hormone-stimulated generation of [3H]inositol phosphates (inositol trisphosphate, inositol bisphosphate, and inositol monophosphate) from acini labeled with [3H]myoinositol is markedly reduced in acini prepared from mice fed the CDE diet. This reduction is not due to a decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. This communication represents the first report of a system in which a blockade of inositol phosphate generation can be related to a physiologic defect and pathologic lesion.
R E Powers, A K Saluja, M J Houlihan, M L Steer