Increased microvascular permeability to plasma proteins and neutrophil emigration are hallmarks of innate immunity and key features of numerous inflammatory disorders. Whilst neutrophils can promote microvascular leakage, the impact of vascular permeability on neutrophil trafficking is unknown. Here, through the application of confocal intravital microscopy, we reported that vascular permeability enhancing stimuli caused a significant frequency of neutrophil reverse transendothelial cell migration (rTEM). Furthermore, mice with a selective defect in microvascular permeability enhancement (VEC-Y685F-ki) showed reduced incidence of rTEM. Mechanistically, elevated vascular leakage promoted movement of interstitial chemokines into the blood stream, a response that supported abluminal-to-luminal neutrophil TEM. Through development of an in vivo cell labelling method we provided direct evidence for the systemic dissemination of rTEM neutrophils, showed them to exhibit an activated phenotype and capable of trafficking to the lungs where their presence was aligned with regions of vascular injury. Collectively, we demonstrated that increased microvascular leakage reverses the localisation of directional cues across venular walls, thus causing neutrophils engaged in diapedesis to re-enter the systemic circulation. This cascade of events offers a mechanism to explain how local tissue inflammation and vascular permeability can induce downstream pathological effects in remote organs, most notably in the lungs.
Charlotte Owen-Woods, Régis Joulia, Anna Barkaway, Loïc Rolas, Bin Ma, Astrid Fee Nottebaum, Kenton P. Arkill, Monja Stein, Tamara Girbl, Matthew Golding, David O. Bates, Dietmar Vestweber, Mathieu-Benoit Voisin, Sussan Nourshargh
Despite the effective clinical use of steroids for the treatment of Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), the mechanistic bases via which glucocorticoids regulate human erythropoiesis remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the sensitivity of erythroid differentiation to dexamethasone (Dex) is dependent on the developmental origin of human CD34+ progenitor cells, specifically increasing the expansion of CD34+ progenitors from peripheral blood (PB) but not cord blood (CB). Dexamethasone treatment of erythroid-differentiated PB, but not CB, CD34+ progenitors resulted in the expansion of a novel CD34+CD36+CD71hiCD105med immature colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) population. Furthermore, proteomics analyses revealed the induction of distinct proteins in dexamethasone-treated PB and CB erythroid progenitors. Dexamethasone treatment of PB progenitors resulted in the specific upregulation of p57Kip2, a Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and we identified this induction as critical; shRNA-mediated downregulation of p57Kip2, but not the related p27Kip1, significantly attenuated the impact of dexamethasone on erythroid differentiation and inhibited the expansion of the immature CFU-E subset. Notably, in the context of DBA, we found that steroid resistance was associated with a dysregulated p57Kip2 expression. Altogether, these data identify a novel glucocorticoid-responsive human erythroid progenitor and provide new insights into glucocorticoid-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with DBA.
Ryan J. Ashley, Hongxia Yan, Nan Wang, John Hale, Brian M Dulmovits, Julien Papoin, Meagan E. Olive, Namrata D Udeshi, Steven A. Carr, Adrianna Vlachos, Jeffrey M. Lipton, Lydie Da Costa, Christopher D. Hillyer, Sandrina Kinet, Naomi Taylor, Narla Mohandas, Anupama Narla, Lionel Blanc
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by an inflammatory response that can lead to terminal respiratory failure. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) is mutated in CF and we hypothesized that dysfunctional CFTR in platelets, which are key participants in immune responses, is a central determinant of CF inflammation. We found that deletion of CFTR in platelets produced exaggerated acute lung inflammation and platelet activation after intratracheal LPS or Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge. CFTR loss of function in mouse or human platelets resulted in agonist-induced hyperactivation and increased calcium entry into platelets. Inhibition of the transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6) reduced platelet activation and calcium flux, and reduced lung injury in CF mice after intratracheal LPS or Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge. CF subjects receiving CFTR modulator therapy showed partial restoration of CFTR function in platelets, which may be a convenient approach to monitoring biological responses to CFTR modulators. We conclude that CFTR dysfunction in platelets produces aberrant TRPC6-dependent platelet activation, which is a major driver of CF lung inflammation and impaired bacterial clearance. Platelets, and TRPC6, are what we believe to be novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of CF lung disease.
Guadalupe Ortiz-Munoz, Michelle A. Yu, Emma Lefrançais, Benat Mallavia, Colin Valet, Jennifer J. Tian, Serena Ranucci, Kristin M. Wang, Zhe Liu, Nicholas Kwaan, Diana Dawson, Mary Ellen Kleinhenz, Fadi T. Khasawneh, Peter M. Haggie, Alan S. Verkman, Mark R. Looney
While the Western-diet and dysbiosis are the most prominent environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), the corresponding host factors and cellular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report that the TSC1-mTOR pathway in the gut epithelium represents a metabolic and innate immune checkpoint for intestinal dysfunction and inflammation. mTOR hyperactivation triggered by the Western-diet or Tsc1-ablation led to epithelium necroptosis, barrier disruption, and predisposition to DSS (dextran sulfate sodium)-induced colitis and inflammation-associated colon cancer. Mechanistically, our results uncovered a critical role for TSC1-mTOR in restraining the expression and activation of RIPK3 in the gut epithelium through Trim11-mediated ubiquitination and autophagy-dependent degradation. Notably, microbiota-depletion by antibiotics or gnotobiotics attenuated RIPK3 expression and activation, thereby alleviating epithelial necroptosis and colitis driven by mTOR hyperactivation. mTOR primarily impinged on RIPK3 to potentiate TNF- and microbial PAMP-induced necroptosis, and hyperactive mTOR and aberrant necroptosis were intertwined in human IBDs. Together, our data reveal a previously unsuspected link between the Western-diet, microbiota and necroptosis, and identify the mTOR-RIPK3-necroptosis axis as a driving force for intestinal inflammation and cancer.
Yadong Xie, Yifan Zhao, Lei Shi, Wei Li, Kun Chen, Min Li, Xia Chen, Haiwei Zhang, Tiantian Li, Matsuzawa-Ishimoto Yu, Xiaomin Yao, Dianhui Shao, Zunfu Ke, Jian Li, Yan Chen, Xiaoming Zhang, Jun Cui, Shuzhong Cui, Qibin Leng, Ken Cadwell, Xiaoxia Li, Hong Wei, Haibing Zhang, Huabin Li, Hui Xiao
After trauma, regeneration of adult CNS axons is abortive causing devastating neurologic deficits. Despite progress in rehabilitative care, there is no effective treatment stimulating axon growth following injury. Using models with different regenerative capacities, followed by gain- and loss-of-function analysis, we identified profilin1 (Pfn1) as a coordinator of actin and microtubules (MTs), powering axon growth and regeneration. In growth cones, Pfn1 increased actin retrograde flow, MT growth speed and invasion of filopodia by MTs, orchestrating cytoskeleton dynamics towards axon growth. In vitro, active Pfn1 promoted MT growth in a formin-dependent manner, whereas localization of MTs to growth cone filopodia was facilitated by direct MT binding and interaction with formins. In vivo, Pfn1 ablation limited regeneration of growth-competent axons after sciatic nerve and spinal cord injury. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) delivery of constitutively active Pfn1 to rodents promoted axon regeneration, neuromuscular junction maturation and functional recovery of injured sciatic nerves, and increased the ability of regenerating axons to penetrate the inhibitory spinal cord glial scar. Thus, we identify Pfn1 as an important regulator of axon regeneration and suggest that AAV-mediated delivery of constitutively active Pfn1, together with the identification of modulators of Pfn1 activity, should be considered to treat the injured nervous system.
Rita Pinto-Costa, Sara Castro Sousa, Sérgio C. Leite, Joana Nogueira-Rodrigues, Tiago Ferreira da Silva, Diana Machado, Joana Beatriz Moreira Marques, Ana Catarina Costa, Márcia A. Liz, Francesca Bartolini, Pedro Brites, Mercedes Costell, Reinhard Fässler, Monica M. Sousa
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is a deadly liver disease without an effective medical therapy. Although SAH mortality is known to correlate with hepatic accumulation of immature liver cells, why this occurs, and how it causes death is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that expression of epithelial splicing regulatory protein-2 (ESRP2), an RNA splicing factor that maintains the non-proliferative, mature phenotype of adult hepatocytes, was suppressed in both human SAH and various mouse models of SAH in parallel with the severity of alcohol consumption and liver damage. Inflammatory cytokines released by excessive alcohol ingestion reprogrammed adult hepatocytes into proliferative, fetal-like cells by suppressing ESRP2. Sustained loss of ESRP2 permitted re-emergence of a fetal RNA splicing program that attenuates the Hippo signaling pathway and thus, allows fetal transcriptional regulators to accumulate in adult liver. We further showed that depleting ESRP2 in mice exacerbated alcohol-induced steatohepatitis, enabling surviving hepatocytes to shed adult hepatocyte functions and become more regenerative but threatens overall survival by populating the liver with functionally-immature hepatocytes. Our findings revealed a novel mechanism that explains why liver failure develops in patients with the clinical syndrome of SAH, suggesting that recovery from SAH might be improved by limiting adult-to-fetal reprogramming in hepatocytes.
Jeongeun Hyun, Zhaoli Sun, Ali Reza Ahmadi, Sushant Bangru, Ullas V. Chembazhi, Kuo Du, Tianyi Chen, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Ivan Rusyn, Auinash Kalsotra, Anna Mae Diehl
Macrophages have been linked to tumor initiation, progression, metastasis and treatment resistance. However, the transcriptional regulation of macrophages driving the pro-tumor function remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor c-Maf is a critical controller for immunosuppressive macrophage polarization and function in cancer. c-Maf controls many M2-related genes and has direct binding sites within a conservative non-coding sequence of csf-1r gene and promotes M2-like macrophage-mediated T cell suppression and tumor progression. c-Maf also serves as a metabolic checkpoint regulating TCA cycle and UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis thus promoting M2-like macrophage polarization and activation. Additionally, c-Maf is highly expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and regulates TAM immunosuppressive function. Deletion of c-Maf specifically in myeloid cells results in reduced tumor burden with enhanced antitumor T cell immunity. Inhibition of c-Maf partly overcomes resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy in a subcutaneous LLC tumor model. Similarly, c-Maf is expressed in human M2 and tumor-infiltrating macrophages/monocytes as well as circulating monocytes of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients and critically regulates its immunosuppressive activity. Natural compound β-glucan downregulates c-Maf expression on macrophages leading to enhanced antitumor immunity in mice. These findings establish a paradigm for immunosuppressive macrophage polarization and transcriptional regulation by c-Maf and suggest that c-Maf is a potential target for effective tumor immunotherapy.
Min Liu, Zan Tong, Chuanlin Ding, Fengling Luo, Shouzhen Wu, Caijun Wu, Sabrin Albeituni, Liqing He, Xiaoling Hu, David Tieri, Eric C. Rouchka, Michito Hamada, Satoru Takahashi, Andrew A. Gibb, Goetz Kloecker, Huang-Ge Zhang, Michael Bousamra, Bradford G. Hill, Xiang Zhang, Jun Yan
Induction of the inflammasome protein cryopyrin (NLRP3) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL1β) in obesity. While this mechanism contributes to peripheral metabolic dysfunction, effects on the brain remain unexplored. These studies investigated whether visceral adipose NLRP3 impairs cognition by activating microglial interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL1R1). After observing protection against obesity-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in NLRP3KO mice, we transplanted VAT from obese WT or NLRP3KO donors into lean recipients. Transplantation of VAT from a WT donor (TRANSWT) increased hippocampal IL1β and impaired cognition, but VAT transplants from comparably obese NLRP3KO donors (TRANSKO) had no effect. Visceral adipose NLRP3 was required for deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) in transplant recipients, and LTP impairment in TRANSWT mice was IL1-dependent. Flow cytometric and gene expression analyses revealed that VAT transplantation recapitulated the effects of obesity on microglial activation and IL1β gene expression, and visualization of hippocampal microglia revealed similar effects in vivo. Inducible ablation of IL1R1 in CX3CR1-expressing cells eliminated cognitive impairment in mice with dietary obesity and in transplant recipients and restored immunoquiescence in hippocampal microglia. These results indicate that visceral adipose NLRP3 impairs memory via IL1-mediated microglial activation, and suggest that NLRP3-IL1β signaling may underlie correlations between visceral adiposity and cognitive impairment in humans.
De-Huang Guo, Masaki Yamamoto, Caterina M. Hernandez, Hesam Khodadadi, Babak Baban, Alexis M. Stranahan
A better understanding of all immune components involved in protecting against M. tuberculosis infection is urgently needed to inform strategies for novel immunotherapy and tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development. While cell-mediated immunity is critical, increasing evidence supports that antibodies also have a protective role against TB. Yet, knowledge of protective antigens is limited. Analyzing sera from 97 US immigrants at various states of M. tuberculosis infection, we showed protective in vitro and in vivo efficacy of polyclonal IgG to the M. tuberculosis capsular polysaccharide arabinomannan (AM). Using recently developed glycan arrays, we established that anti-AM IgG induced in natural infection is highly heterogeneous in its binding specificity and differs in both its reactivity to oligosaccharide motifs within AM and its functions between BCG vaccination and/or controlled (latent) versus uncontrolled (TB) M. tuberculosis infection. We showed that anti-AM IgG from asymptomatic but not diseased individuals was protective, and provided data suggesting a potential role of IgG2 and specific AM oligosaccharides. Filling a gap in the current knowledge of protective antigens in humans, our data support the key role of the M. tuberculosis surface glycan AM and suggest the importance of targeting specific glycan epitopes within AM in antibody-mediated immunity against TB.
Tingting Chen, Caroline Blanc, Yanyan Liu, Elise Ishida, Sarah Singer, Jiayong Xu, Maju Joe, Elizabeth R. Jenny-Avital, John Chan, Todd L. Lowary, Jacqueline M. Achkar
PTH is a critical regulator of skeletal development that promotes both bone formation and bone resorption. Using microbiota depletion by wide-spectrum antibiotics and germ-free (GF) female mice we showed that the microbiota was required for PTH to stimulate bone formation and increase bone mass. Microbiota depletion lowered butyrate levels, a metabolite responsible for gut-bone communication, while reestablishment of physiologic levels of butyrate restored PTH-induced anabolism. The permissive activity of butyrate was mediated by GPR43 signaling in dendritic cells (DCs) and by GPR43-independent signaling in T cells. Butyrate was required for PTH to increase the number of bone marrow (BM) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs stimulated production of the osteogenic Wnt ligand Wnt10b by BM CD8+ T cells, which activated Wnt dependent bone formation. Together, these data highlight the role that butyrate produced by gut luminal microbiota plays in triggering regulatory pathways which are critical for the anabolic action of PTH in bone.
Jau-Yi Li, Mingcan Yu, Subhashis Pal, Abdul Malik Tyagi, Hamid Dar, Jonathan Adams, M. Neale Weitzmann, Rheinallt M. Jones, Roberto Pacifici
No posts were found with this tag.