The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (VZV gE) subunit herpes zoster vaccine (HZ/su) confers higher protection against HZ than the live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZV). To understand the immunologic basis for the different efficacies of the vaccines, we compared immune responses to the vaccines in adults 50- to 85-year-old. gE-specific T cells were very low/undetectable before vaccination when analyzed by FluoroSpot and flow cytometry. Both ZV and HZ/su increased gE-specific responses, but at peak memory response (PMR) after vaccination (30 days after ZV or after the second dose of HZ/su) gE-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were ≥ 10-fold higher in HZ/su compared with ZV recipients. Comparing the vaccines, T cell memory responses, including gE- and VZV-IL2+ spot-forming cells (SFC), were higher in HZ/su recipients and cytotoxic and effector responses were lower. At 1 year after vaccination, all gE-Th1 and VZV-IL2+ SFC remained higher in HZ/su compared to ZV recipients. Mediation analyses showed that IL2+ PMR were necessary for the persistence of Th1 responses to either vaccine and VZV-IL2+ PMR explained 73% of the total effect of HZ/su on persistence. This emphasizes the biological importance of the memory responses, which were clearly superior in HZ/su compared with ZV participants.
Myron J. Levin, Miranda E. Kroehl, Michael J. Johnson, Andrew Hammes, Dominik Reinhold, Nancy Lang, Adriana Weinberg
Germinal centers (GCs) are major sites of clonal B cell expansion and generation of long-lived, high-affinity antibody responses to pathogens. Signaling through toll-like receptors(TLRs) on B cells promotes many aspects of GC B cell responses, including affinity-maturation, class-switching and differentiation into long-lived memory and plasma cells. A major challenge for effective vaccination is identifying strategies to specifically promote GC B cell responses. Here we have identified a mechanism of regulation of GC B cell TLR signaling, mediated by αv integrins and non-canonical autophagy. Using B cell-specific αv-knockout mice, we show that loss of αv-mediated TLR regulation increased GC B cell expansion, somatic-hypermutation, class-switching, and generation of long-lived plasma cells after immunization with virus-like particles(VLPs) or antigens associated with TLR ligand adjuvants. Furthermore, targeting αv-mediated regulation increased the magnitude and breadth of antibody responses to influenza virus vaccination. These data therefore identify a mechanism of regulation of GC B cells, which can be targeted to enhance antibody responses to vaccination.
Fiona Raso, Sara Sagadiev, Samuel Du, Emily Gage, Tanvi Arkatkar, Genita Metzler, Lynda M. Stuart, Mark T. Orr, David Rawlings, Shaun Jackson, Adam Lacy-Hulbert, Mridu Acharya
In the mid-1990s, whole-cell (wP) pertussis vaccines were associated with local and systemic adverse events, which prompted their replacement with acellular (aP) vaccines in many high-income countries. In the past decade rates of pertussis disease have increased in children receiving only acellular pertussis vaccines. We compared the immune responses to acellular pertussis boosters in children who received their initial doses with either wP or aP vaccines using activation-induced marker (AIM) assays. Specifically, we examined pertussis-specific memory CD4+ T cell responses ex vivo, highlighting a Type 2/Th2 versus Type 1/Th1 and Th17 differential polarization as a function of childhood vaccination. Remarkably, after a contemporary aP booster, cells from donors originally primed with aP were 1) associated with increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-9 and TGF-β and decreased IFNγ and IL-17 production; 2) defective in their ex vivo capacity to expand memory cells; and 3) less capable to proliferate in vitro. These differences appeared to be T cell-specific, since equivalent increases of antibody titers and plasmablasts after aP boost were seen in both groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that long lasting effects and differential polarization and proliferation exists between adults originally vaccinated with aP versus wP despite repeated acellular boosters.
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, Mariana Babor, Chelsea Carpenter, Natalie Khalil, Mario Cortese, Alexander J Mentzer, Grégory Seumois, Christopher D. Petro, Lisa A. Purcell, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Shane Crotty, Bali Pulendran, Bjorn Peters, Alessandro Sette
Vaccine responses vary by geographic location. We have previously described how HIV-associated inflammation leads to fibrosis of secondary lymph nodes (LNs) and T cell depletion. We hypothesized that other infections may cause LN inflammation and fibrosis, in a process similar to that seen in HIV infection, which may lead to T cell depletion and affect vaccine responses. We studied LNs of individuals from Kampala, Uganda, before and after yellow fever vaccination (YFV) and found fibrosis in LNs that was similar to that seen in HIV infection. We found blunted antibody responses to YFV that correlated to the amount of LN fibrosis and loss of T cells, including T follicular helper cells. These data suggest that LN fibrosis is not limited to HIV infection and may be associated with impaired immunologic responses to vaccines. This may have an impact on vaccine development, especially for infectious diseases prevalent in the developing world.
Cissy Kityo, Krystelle Nganou Makamdop, Meghan Rothenberger, Jeffrey G. Chipman, Torfi Hoskuldsson, Gregory J. Beilman, Bartosz Grzywacz, Peter Mugyenyi, Francis Ssali, Rama S. Akondy, Jodi Anderson, Thomas E. Schmidt, Thomas Reimann, Samuel P. Callisto, Jordan Schoephoerster, Jared Schuster, Proscovia Muloma, Patrick Ssengendo, Eirini Moysi, Constantinos Petrovas, Ray Lanciotti, Lin Zhang, Maria T. Arévalo, Benigno Rodriguez, Ted M. Ross, Lydie Trautmann, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Michael M. Lederman, Richard A. Koup, Rafi Ahmed, Cavan Reilly, Daniel C. Douek, Timothy W. Schacker
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are highly prevalent in developing countries where clinical presentations range from asymptomatic colonization to severe cholera-like illness. The molecular basis for these varied presentations, that may involve strain-specific virulence features as well as host factors, have not been elucidated. We demonstrate that when challenged with ETEC strain H10407, originally isolated from a case of cholera-like illness, blood group A human volunteers developed severe diarrhea more frequently than individuals from other blood groups. Interestingly, a diverse population of ETEC strains, including H10407, secrete a novel adhesin molecule, EtpA. As many bacterial adhesins also agglutinate red blood cells, we combined the use of glycan arrays, biolayer inferometry, and non-canonical amino acid labeling with hemagglutination studies to demonstrate that EtpA is a dominant ETEC blood group A specific lectin/hemagglutinin. Importantly, we also show that EtpA interacts specifically with glycans expressed on intestinal epithelial cells from blood group A individuals, and that EtpA-mediated bacterial-host interactions accelerate bacterial adhesion and the effective delivery both heat-labile and heat-stable toxins of ETEC. Collectively, these data provide additional insight into the complex molecular basis of severe ETEC diarrheal illness that may inform rational design of vaccines to protect those at highest risk.
Pardeep Kumar, F. Matthew Kuhlmann, Subhra Chakroborty, A. Louis Bourgeois, Jennifer Foulke-Abel, Brunda Tumala, Tim J. Vickers, David A. Sack, Barbara DeNearing, Clayton D. Harro, W. Shea Wright, Jeffrey C. Gildersleeve, Matthew A. Ciorba, Srikanth Santhanam, Chad K. Porter, Ramiro L. Gutierrez, Michael G. Prouty, Mark S. Riddle, Alexander Polino, Alaullah Sheikh, Mark Donowitz, James M. Fleckenstein
Vaccines targeting glycan structures at the surface of pathogenic microbes must overcome the inherent T cell–independent nature of immune responses against glycans. Carbohydrate conjugate vaccines achieve this by coupling bacterial polysaccharides to a carrier protein that recruits heterologous CD4 T cells to help B cell maturation. Yet they most often produce low- to medium-affinity immune responses of limited duration in immunologically fit individuals and disappointing results in the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Here, we hypothesized that these limitations result from suboptimal T cell help. To produce the next generation of more efficacious conjugate vaccines, we have explored a synthetic design aimed at focusing both B cell and T cell recognition to a single short glycan displayed at the surface of a virus-like particle. We tested and established the proof of concept of this approach for 2 serotypes of
Zinaida Polonskaya, Shenglou Deng, Anita Sarkar, Lisa Kain, Marta Comellas-Aragones, Craig S. McKay, Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Marie Holt, Ryan McBride, Valle Palomo, Kevin M. Self, Seth Taylor, Adriana Irimia, Sanjay R. Mehta, Jennifer M. Dan, Matthew Brigger, Shane Crotty, Stephen P. Schoenberger, James C. Paulson, Ian A. Wilson, Paul B. Savage, M.G. Finn, Luc Teyton
Direct delivery of aerosolized vaccines to the respiratory mucosa elicits both systemic and mucosal responses. This vaccine strategy has not been tested for Ebola virus (EBOV) or other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Here, we examined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an aerosolized human parainfluenza virus type 3–vectored vaccine that expresses the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV (HPIV3/EboGP) delivered to the respiratory tract. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with aerosolized HPIV3/EboGP, liquid HPIV3/EboGP, or an unrelated, intramuscular, Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon vaccine expressing EBOV GP. Serum and mucosal samples from aerosolized HPIV3/EboGP recipients exhibited high EBOV-specific IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibody titers, which exceeded or equaled titers observed in liquid recipients. The HPIV3/EboGP vaccine induced an EBOV-specific cellular response that was greatest in the lungs and yielded polyfunctional CD8+ T cells, including a subset that expressed CD103 (αE integrin), and CD4+ T helper cells that were predominately type 1. The magnitude of the CD4+ T cell response was greater in aerosol vaccinees. The HPIV3/EboGP vaccine produced a more robust cell-mediated and humoral immune response than the systemic replicon vaccine. Moreover, 1 aerosol HPIV3/EboGP dose conferred 100% protection to macaques exposed to EBOV. Aerosol vaccination represents a useful and feasible vaccination mode that can be implemented with ease in a filovirus disease outbreak situation.
Michelle Meyer, Tania Garron, Ndongala M. Lubaki, Chad E. Mire, Karla A. Fenton, Curtis Klages, Gene G. Olinger, Thomas W. Geisbert, Peter L. Collins, Alexander Bukreyev
Recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAds) are lead vaccine candidates for protection against a variety of pathogens, including Ebola, HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, due to their ability to potently induce T cell immunity in humans. However, the ability to induce protective cellular immunity varies among rAds. Here, we assessed the mechanisms that control the potency of CD8 T cell responses in murine models following vaccination with human-, chimpanzee-, and simian-derived rAds encoding SIV-Gag antigen (Ag). After rAd vaccination, we quantified Ag expression and performed expression profiling of innate immune response genes in the draining lymph node. Human-derived rAd5 and chimpanzee-derived chAd3 were the most potent rAds and induced high and persistent Ag expression with low innate gene activation, while less potent rAds induced less Ag expression and robustly induced innate immunity genes that were primarily associated with IFN signaling. Abrogation of type I IFN or stimulator of IFN genes (STING) signaling increased Ag expression and accelerated CD8 T cell response kinetics but did not alter memory responses or protection. These findings reveal that the magnitude of rAd-induced memory CD8 T cell immune responses correlates with Ag expression but is independent of IFN and STING and provide criteria for optimizing protective CD8 T cell immunity with rAd vaccines.
Kylie M. Quinn, Daniel E. Zak, Andreia Costa, Ayako Yamamoto, Kathrin Kastenmuller, Brenna J. Hill, Geoffrey M. Lynn, Patricia A. Darrah, Ross W.B. Lindsay, Lingshu Wang, Cheng Cheng, Alfredo Nicosia, Antonella Folgori, Stefano Colloca, Riccardo Cortese, Emma Gostick, David A. Price, Jason G.D. Gall, Mario Roederer, Alan Aderem, Robert A. Seder
Diarrheal diseases represent a major health burden in developing countries. Parenteral immunization typically does not induce efficient protection against enteropathogens because it does not stimulate migration of immune cells to the gut. Retinoic acid (RA) is critical for gut immunity, inducing upregulation of gut-homing receptors on activated T cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that RA can redirect immune responses elicited by s.c. vaccination of mice from skin-draining inguinal LNs (ingLNs) to the gut. When present during priming, RA induced robust upregulation of gut-homing receptors in ingLNs, imprinting gut-homing capacity on T cells. Concurrently, RA triggered the generation of gut-tropic IgA+ plasma cells in ingLNs and raised the levels of antigen-specific IgA in the intestinal lumen and blood. RA applied s.c. in vivo induced autonomous RA production in ingLN DCs, further driving efficient induction of gut-homing molecules on effector cells. Importantly, RA-supplemented s.c. immunization elicited a potent immune response in the small intestine that protected mice from cholera toxin–induced diarrhea and diminished bacterial loads in Peyer patches after oral infection with Salmonella. Thus, the use of RA as a gut-homing navigator represents a powerful tool to induce protective immunity in the intestine after s.c. immunization, offering what we believe to be a novel approach for vaccination against enteropathogens.
Swantje I. Hammerschmidt, Michaela Friedrichsen, Jasmin Boelter, Marcin Lyszkiewicz, Elisabeth Kremmer, Oliver Pabst, Reinhold Förster
The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DC-based cancer vaccines is limited by suboptimal DC maturation protocols. Although delivery of TLR adjuvants systemically boosts DC-based cancer vaccine efficacy, it could also increase toxicity. Here, we have engineered a drug-inducible, composite activation receptor for DCs (referred to herein as DC-CAR) comprising the TLR adaptor MyD88, the CD40 cytoplasmic region, and 2 ligand-binding FKBP12 domains. Administration of a lipid-permeant dimerizing ligand (AP1903) induced oligomerization and activation of this fusion protein, which we termed iMyD88/CD40. AP1903 administration to vaccinated mice enabled prolonged and targeted activation of iMyD88/CD40-modified DCs. Compared with conventionally matured DCs, AP1903-activated iMyD88/CD40-DCs had increased activation of proinflammatory MAPKs. AP1903-activated iMyD88/CD40-transduced human or mouse DCs also produced higher levels of Th1 cytokines, showed improved migration in vivo, and enhanced both antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses and innate NK cell responses. Furthermore, treatment with AP1903 in vaccinated mice led to robust antitumor immunity against preestablished E.G7-OVA lymphomas and aggressive B16.F10 tumors. Thus, the iMyD88/CD40 unified “switch” effectively and safely replaced exogenous adjuvant cocktails, allowing remote and sustained DC activation in vivo. DC “licensing” through iMyD88/CD40 may represent a mechanism by which to exploit the natural synergy between the TLR and CD40 signaling pathways in DCs using a single small molecule drug and could augment the efficacy of antitumor DC-based vaccines.
Priyadharshini Narayanan, Natalia Lapteva, Mamatha Seethammagari, Jonathan M. Levitt, Kevin M. Slawin, David M. Spencer
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