J F Gusella
Epidemiologic studies suggest that women who smoke have lower endogenous estrogen than nonsmokers. To explore the possible link between cigarette smoking and decreased endogenous estrogens, we have examined the effects of constituents of tobacco on estrogen production in human choriocarcinoma cells and term placental microsomes. In choriocarcinoma cell cultures, nicotine, cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine), and anabasine (a minor component of cigarette tobacco) all inhibited androstenedione conversion to estrogen in a dose-dependent fashion. Removal of nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine from the culture medium resulted in the complete reversal of the inhibition of aromatase. In the choriocarcinoma cell cultures, a supraphysiologic concentration of androstenedione (73 microM) in the culture medium blocked the inhibition of aromatase caused by nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine. In preparations of term placental microsomes, nicotine, cotinine, and anabasine inhibited the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Kinetic analysis demonstrated the inhibition to be competitive with respect to the substrate. These findings suggest that some nicotinic alkaloids directly inhibit aromatase. This mechanism may explain, in part, the decreased estrogen observed in women who smoke.
R L Barbieri, J Gochberg, K J Ryan
Complementary DNA coding for human monocyte interleukin 1 (IL-1), pI 7 form, was expressed in Escherichia coli. During purification, IL-1 activity on murine T cells was associated with the recombinant protein. Homogeneous human recombinant IL-1 (hrIL-1) was tested in several assays to demonstrate the immunological and inflammatory properties attributed to this molecule. hrIL-1 induced proliferative responses in a cloned murine T cell in the presence of suboptimal concentrations of mitogen, whereas no effect was observed with hrIL-1 alone. At concentrations of 0.05 ng/ml, hrIL-1 doubled the response to mitogen (5 X 10(6) half maximal units/mg). Human peripheral blood T cells depleted of adherent cells underwent a blastogenic response and released interleukin 2 in the presence of hrIL-1 and mitogen. hrIL-1 was a potent inflammatory agent by its ability to induce human dermal fibroblast prostaglandin E2 production in vitro and to produce monophasic (endogenous pyrogen) fever when injected into rabbits or endotoxin-resistant mice. These studies establish that the dominant pI 7 form of recombinant human IL-1 possesses immunological and inflammatory properties and acts on the central nervous system to produce fever.
C A Dinarello, J G Cannon, J W Mier, H A Bernheim, G LoPreste, D L Lynn, R N Love, A C Webb, P E Auron, R C Reuben
The c-fms gene product is related, and possibly identical, to the receptor for the mononuclear phagocyte colony stimulating factor, CSF-1. Using antisera to a recombinant v-fms--coded polypeptide, glycoproteins encoded by the human c-fms locus were detected in mononuclear cells from normal peripheral blood and in promyelocytic HL-60 cells 24 h after induction of monocytic differentiation with phorbol ester. The 150-kD human c-fms--coded glycoprotein was expressed at the cell surface, was active as a tyrosine-specific protein kinase in vitro, and shared primary structural features with the product of the feline retroviral v-fms oncogene. A biochemically indistinguishable glycoprotein was detected in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. Like peripheral blood mononuclear cells and phorbol ester-treated HL-60 cells, the choriocarcinoma cells expressed high affinity binding sites for human CSF-1. In addition to serving as a lineage specific growth factor in hematopoiesis, CSF-1 may play a role in normal trophoblast development.
C W Rettenmier, R Sacca, W L Furman, M F Roussel, J T Holt, A W Nienhuis, E R Stanley, C J Sherr
To investigate the possible role of insulin per se in the thermic response to glucose/insulin infusions, respiratory exchange measurements were performed on eight healthy young men for 45 min before and 210 min after somatostatin infusion. Two tests were performed on separate days and each had two consecutive phases of 90 min each. Test 1. Two different rates of glucose uptake were imposed, one at euglycemia (phase 1) and the other at hyperglycemia (phase 2) while insulinemia was maintained constant throughout. Test 2. Glucose uptake was maintained constant throughout while insulin was infused at two different rates: 1 mU/kg per min with hyperglycemia (phase 1) and 6.45 mU/kg per min with "euglycemia" (phase 2). The thermic effect of glucose and insulin, obtained from phase 1 in both tests, was 5.9 +/- 1.2 and 5.8 +/- 0.5% (NS) of the energy infused, respectively. A step increase in glucose uptake alone, test 1, phase 2, (0.469 +/- 0.039 to 1.069 +/- 0.094 g/min) caused an increase in energy expenditure of 0.14 +/- 0.03 kcal/min (thermic effect 5.9 +/- 1.1%). When insulin was increased by 752 +/- 115 microU/ml, with no change in glucose uptake, energy expenditure rose by 0.05 +/- 0.02 kcal/min, which correlated with the increase in plasma catecholamines. It is concluded that a large proportion of the thermic response to glucose/insulin infusions is due to glucose metabolism alone. The thermic effect of insulin is small and appears to be mediated by the sympathetic nervous system; thus at physiological insulin concentrations, the thermic effect of insulin per se is negligible.
L Christin, C A Nacht, O Vernet, E Ravussin, E Jéquier, K J Acheson
22 homosexual or narcotic addict patients at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with AIDS, were studied for the presence of antiimmunoglobulin antibodies and circulating immune complexes (20 were thrombocytopenic, 6 had AIDS). Circulating immune complex levels were 10-fold higher than levels in normal subjects. IgG anti-F(ab')2 antibodies were noted in homosexual as well as narcotic addict patients. Of 16 homosexual patients, 7 had IgG anti-F(ab')2 antibody of moderate to marked titer with broad reactivity against autologous, homologous, and control F(ab')2 fragments. Three others demonstrated limited reactivity against one or two F(ab')2 fragments. The remaining six patients were negative. Six of six narcotic addict patients had IgG anti-F(ab')2 antibody, five with limited reactivity, one with broad reactivity. In contrast, neither elevated circulating immune complexes nor anti-F(ab')2 antibodies were detectable in six autoimmune thrombocytopenic patients. Anti-F(ab')2 antibody could be affinity purified from serum or circulating immune complexes. Anti-F(ab')2 reactivity correlated with circulating immune complex levels, r = 0.83, P less than 0.01.
J R Yu, E T Lennette, S Karpatkin
Circulating osteocalcin, which normally reflects the rate of bone formation, is elevated in uremia. In 18 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis, serum osteocalcin levels were directly related to the bone formation rate (r = 0.88, P less than 0.001), osteoblastic osteoid surface density (r = 0.65, P less than 0.01), and osteoclastic resorptive surface density (r = 0.75, P less than 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that osteocalcin levels remained positively correlated with osteoclastic resorption when the bone formation rate was held constant (P less than 0.01). The intimation that the coupling of bone formation and resorption could not explain the relationship between osteocalcin and resorption led us to determine whether fragments of this abundant matrix protein are released by bone resorption and retained in uremia. Sera from dialysis patients with renal osteodystrophy were fractionated by sequential gel filtration and HPLC, and assayed for immunoreactive osteocalcin. When normal serum was analyzed, a single sharp peak was found. In pooled sera from patients with high osteoclastic resorptive surfaces identified by histomorphometry, we found five additional immunoreactive peaks, while three additional peaks were detected in sera from patients with lower osteoclastic surfaces. Bio-Gel P-10 chromatography showed that these multiple peaks were of lower molecular weight than intact osteocalcin. We suggest that the liberation of bone matrix by osteoclasts contributes to the circulating osteocalcin immunoreactivity in uremia.
C M Gundberg, R S Weinstein
Insulinlike growth factors (IGF) act qualitatively like insulin on insulin target tissues in vitro. In the circulation in vivo they are bound to specific carrier proteins. In this form or when continuously infused into hypophysectomized (hypox) rats they do not exert acute insulinlike effects on glucose homeostasis. This study definitively shows that intravenous bolus injections of pure IGF I or II act acutely on glucose homeostasis: they lower the blood sugar, enhance the disappearance of U-[14C]glucose from serum and increase its incorporation into diaphragm glycogen in normal and hypox rats in the presence of antiinsulin serum. The same effects were obtained with recombinant human IGF I injected intravenously either with or without antiinsulin serum into normal rats. Free fatty acid levels decreased transiently only in normal animals. Lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue was not stimulated in hypox and barely stimulated in normal rats. The half-life of injected IGF I or II in normal rats (approximately 4 h) is strikingly different from that in hypophysectomized rats (20-30 min) and appears to depend on the growth hormone-induced 150,000-200,000-mol wt IGF carrier protein that is lacking in hypophysectomized rats. 15 min after the bolus serum IGF I and II concentrations were similar to steady state levels during long-term infusion in hypox rats. Free IGF was barely detectable, however, in the infused animals, whereas 40-100% was found free 15 min after the bolus. These observations for the first time confirm the hypothesis that only free IGF, but not the IGF carrier protein complex, is bioavailable to insulin target tissues.
J Zapf, C Hauri, M Waldvogel, E R Froesch
We have previously demonstrated low levels of immunoreactive (ir)-beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and ir-ACTH in a subpopulation of mouse spleen macrophages, which is consistent with an involvement of opioid peptides in modulation of immune responses. Gel chromatography studies suggested the presence of an approximately 3.5,000-molecular weight (mol wt) species, putatively beta-EP, an approximately 11.5,000-mol-wt species, putatively beta-lipotropin, and a higher molecular weight species (putative beta-EP precursor, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). In this study we have extended our original findings by demonstrating the presence of messenger RNA for POMC by the use of a complementary DNA probe and Northern blot analysis of extracts of mouse and rat spleen. In addition, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we have shown that the major endorphin species in mouse spleen macrophages is beta-EP1-31, and that there are smaller amounts of each of the acetylated forms, N-acetyl-beta-EP1-16 (alpha-endorphin), N-acetyl-beta-EP1-17 (gamma-endorphin), N-acetyl-beta-EP1-27, and N-acetyl-beta-EP1-31. We interpret these studies as showing that (a) the spleen is an organ of POMC synthesis and that (b) the predominant COOH-terminal product of macrophage POMC is the opiate-receptor active species beta-EP1-31.
S J Lolait, J A Clements, A J Markwick, C Cheng, M McNally, A I Smith, J W Funder
The present study was designed to determine the effects of pulmonary vascular pressure, vascular injury, and pulmonary edema on regional blood volume (Vr) and regional red blood cell (RBC) transit time (Tr) in the lung. The experiments were carried out in 15 dogs. Six served as controls, six had oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema (OAPE), and three had high pressure pulmonary edema (HPPE). Regional blood flow (Qr) was measured with 99mTc macroaggregates, Vr with 51Cr homologous RBC, and regional transit time was calculated (Vr/Qr). The dogs were killed, and the lungs removed and sampled completely. Regional extravascular lung water (EVLW) was measured in grams per gram of dry lung and ranged from 3.7 +/- 1.1 in the control group to 6.0 +/- 1.3 in OAPE and 5.6 +/- 0.6 in HPPE. The data show that in normal lungs, increased Qr was associated with a recruitment of blood volume. In OAPE, data show that regional blood volume was decreased and that vascular injury and edema formation interfered with a further increase in Vr as Qr increased. In HPPE, Vr has already fully distended and it changed little with increased blood flow. We conclude that oleic acid-induced pulmonary injury and edema interfere with vascular recruitment and shorten regional RBC transit times. HPPE, on the other hand, is associated with normal regional RBC transit times because the vessels are fully recruited.
J Y Tsang, J S Montaner, J C Hogg