Triggered human neutrophils were able to maintain released elastase in an active form in the presence of purified alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha-1-PI), serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). The accumulation of free elastase activity was associated with a decrease in the ability of the alpha-1-PI to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, an increase in proteinase activity associated with alpha-2-macroglobulin, and the oxidation of alpha-1-PI to a molecule containing four methionine sulfoxide residues. Neutrophils used both hypochlorous acid and long-lived N-chloroamines to oxidize the alpha-1-PI, but hypochlorous acid was preferentially used for suppressing the activity of the antiproteinase over short distances whereas the N-chloroamines were effective even when the phagocytes and alpha-1-PI were physically separated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified alpha-1-PI, serum, or BAL that had been incubated with triggered neutrophils revealed that the released neutrophil elastase was not complexed with the antiproteinase and that a portion of the alpha-1-PI had undergone proteolysis. These data suggest that the presence of free neutrophil elastase as well as inactive, oxidized, and proteolyzed alpha-1-PI in fluids recovered from inflammatory sites in vivo could be directly mediated by triggered neutrophils alone.
P J Ossanna, S T Test, N R Matheson, S Regiani, S J Weiss
To evaluate the contribution of mononuclear phagocytes, and particularly alveolar macrophages, to alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) production in normal and alpha 1AT-deficient individuals, Northern analysis with a human alpha 1AT complementary DNA was used to demonstrate that alpha 1AT messenger RNA (mRNA) can be detected in liver, blood monocytes, and alveolar macrophages. Quantification of alpha 1AT mRNA expression demonstrated that: (a) type PiMM monocytes and alveolar macrophages expressed, respectively, 200-fold and 70-fold less alpha 1AT mRNA per cell than the liver; (b) the level of expression of the alpha 1AT gene was increased during the in vitro maturation of blood monocytes; and (c) blood monocyte and alveolar macrophage levels of expression of the alpha 1AT gene were the same in PiMM and PiZZ individuals. However, the amount of newly synthesized alpha 1AT secreted by ZZ alveolar macrophages was 10 times lower than that secreted by MM alveolar macrophages. Thus, mononuclear phagocytes of PiZZ individuals express a secretory defect in alpha 1AT in a fashion similar to hepatocytes. Not only do mononuclear phagocytes provide a readily accessible cell to evaluate the regulation of alpha 1AT gene expression, but these cells may contribute to the levels of alpha 1AT present in the lower respiratory tract in the normal and ZZ states.
J F Mornex, A Chytil-Weir, Y Martinet, M Courtney, J P LeCocq, R G Crystal
The inflammation within the lower respiratory tract of individuals with pulmonary sarcoidosis is dominated by large numbers of helper T lymphocytes that proliferate and spontaneously release interleukin 2 (IL-2). To identify the lymphocyte subpopulation that releases IL-2 in this disorder, lung lymphocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using the monoclonal antibodies Leu4 (T lymphocyte), Leu3 (helper/inducer), Leu2 (suppressor/cytotoxic), and anti-HLA-DR, and separated by panning and flow cytometry. The majority of the IL-2 spontaneously released by T cells in the sarcoid lung was contributed by the Leu3+ cell population (Leu3+65 +/- 23 IL-2 units released/10(6) cells per 24 h; Leu2+ 9 +/- 8, P less than 0.04). Further characterization of the lung Leu3+ T cells in sarcoid demonstrated that 30 +/- 3% were expressing HLA-DR molecules on their surface compared with 6 +/- 1% in normals (P less than 0.01). Importantly, the subpopulation of Leu3+ lung T lymphocytes expressing a high intensity of HLA-DR molecules on their surface was responsible for the majority of the release of IL-2 in the sarcoid lung (Leu3+ high-intensity DR 42 +/- 17 U/10(6) cells per 24 h, Leu3+ low-intensity DR 8 +/- 1 U/10(6) cells per 24 h; P less than 0.01). Thus, the spontaneous release of IL-2 in the lung of sarcoid patients appears to be localized to a subset of Leu3+ high-intensity DR ("activated" lung helper/inducer) T lymphocytes. Because the sarcoid lung is characterized by markedly increased numbers of these cells, it is likely that this compartmentalized T cell population plays a major role in sustaining the exaggerated localized immune processes of this disorder.
C Saltini, J R Spurzem, J J Lee, P Pinkston, R G Crystal
The aim of this study was to determine how luteal cells of the hormone-primed (luteinized) ovary process low density lipoproteins (LDL). Ovary uptake of perfused 125I-LDL was assessed by tissue levels of radioactivity; the distribution of LDL protein in cells was assessed on autoradiograms of the fixed tissue; and the level of stimulation of steroidogenesis, as well as degradation of LDL protein, was assessed on effluent perfusion samples. Human LDL ligand used in these studies was rigorously defined biochemically and physiologically. Homologous (rat) LDL was used as a special ligand control. Other tissue controls included the use of perfused or in vivo-infused luteinized ovaries from animals pretreated to reduce circulating lipoprotein levels, perfused ovaries from a second hormone-primed model, perfused liver from estrogen-treated rats, and isolated and cultured cells from the same ovarian tissues used in the perfusion experiments. The results show that perfused LDL promptly stimulates steroidogenesis. However, the labeled protein moiety of the LDL is not interiorized by the luteal cells, nor is there evidence of LDL protein degradation in the effluent samples. In contrast, internalization of the ligand occurs when luteal cells are incubated with the ligand in vitro. We have observed also that uptake of the 125I-LDL by the ovary can be displaced equally well by excess unlabeled LDL or HDL3. Overall, these experiments suggest that in the intact luteinized ovary, LDL binds to the same sites on the cell surface where HDL "binds," and that LDL cholesterol must be obtained by these steroid hormone-producing cells by a mechanism that does not require internalization of the intact lipoprotein particle.
E Reaven, Y D Chen, M Spicher, S F Hwang, C E Mondon, S Azhar
The objectives of this study were to identify filarial antigens which induce enhanced clearance of circulating microfilariae and to establish if human antibody reactivity with these molecules correlates with the apparent parasite burdens of residents of an endemic area of Bancroftian filariasis. Mice immunized with an extract of Brugia malayi microfilariae develop IgG antibodies to four major filarial antigens with an apparent molecular weight (Mr) of approximately 112,000, 60,000, 45,000, and 25,000. Animals immunized with gel slices containing the approximately 25,000-Mr antigen are resistant to intravenous challenge with live microfilariae (78-98% reduction in parasitemia vs. controls, P less than 0.01). A group of 22 amicrofilaremic humans had a significantly higher (P less than 0.025) mean antibody titer to the Mr 25,000-Mr antigen (1: 424) than 16 microfilaremic individuals (1:95). There were no significant differences between the two groups in antibody titers to filarial antigens of Mr approximately 112,000, 60,000, and 45,000 Mr. These data suggest that a high degree of reactivity to the 25,000-Mr antigen in humans with lymphatic filariasis correlates with a parasitologic status that is least conducive to transmission of infection.
J W Kazura, H Cicirello, K Forsyth
Micropuncture and morphologic studies were performed in six groups of male Munich-Wistar rats after removal of the right kidney and segmental infarction of two-thirds of the left kidney. Groups 1 and 4 received no specific therapy. Groups 2 and 5 were treated with the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, 50 mg/liter, in the drinking water. Groups 3 and 6 were treated with reserpine (5 mg/liter), hydralazine (80 mg/liter), and hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/liter). All rats were fed standard chow. Groups 1-3 underwent micropuncture study 4 wk after renal ablation. Untreated group 1 rats exhibited systemic hypertension and elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to high average values for the mean glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure gradient (delta P) and glomerular plasma flow rate (QA). In group 2 rats, treatment with enalapril prevented systemic hypertension and maintained delta P at near-normal levels without significant reduction in SNGFR and QA. In contrast, triple drug therapy normalized systemic hypertension, but failed to lower delta P in group 3 rats. Groups 4-6 were followed for 12 wk after renal ablation. Untreated group 4 rats demonstrated continuous systemic hypertension, progressive proteinuria, and glomerular structural lesions, including mesangial expansion and frequent areas of segmental sclerosis. In group 5 rats, treatment with enalapril maintained systemic blood pressure at normal levels over the 12-wk period and dramatically limited the development of proteinuria and glomerular lesions. Despite equivalent systemic blood pressure control in group 6 rats, failure of triple drug therapy to control glomerular hypertension was associated with progressive proteinuria and glomerular lesions comparable to those seen in untreated group 4 rats. Thus, unless glomerular capillary hypertension is corrected, control of systemic blood pressure is insufficient to prevent progressive renal injury in rats with reduced renal mass.
S Anderson, H G Rennke, B M Brenner
Glu-plasminogen, the native form of plasminogen, interacts in a specific and saturable manner with unstimulated human platelets, and the binding is enhanced fivefold by thrombin stimulation (Miles and Plow, 1985. J. Biol. Chem. 260:4303). This study characterizes the nature of the Glu-plasminogen binding sites by analyzing platelets deficient in selected proteins and functions. Platelets from patients with afibrinogenemia, Gray platelet syndrome, and the Cam Variant of thrombasthenia, a form of thrombasthenia with near normal levels of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa), showed minimal augmentation of plasminogen binding to thrombin-stimulated platelets but normal binding to unstimulated platelets. This selective deficiency indicates that two distinct mechanisms are involved in the interaction of plasminogen with platelets. These abnormal platelets share a deficiency in fibrinogen. Surface expression of platelet fibrinogen, however, was not sufficient for enhanced plasminogen binding to stimulated platelets, and experiments with alpha-thrombin and gamma-thrombin indicated that fibrin formation on the platelet surface is necessary for the augmented plasminogen binding. Unstimulated and stimulated thrombasthenic platelets deficient in GPIIb/IIIa bound markedly reduced levels of plasminogen, which suggests a role for GPIIb/IIIa in plasminogen binding to unstimulated platelets. Treatment of platelets to dissociate the heterodimeric complex of GPIIb/IIIa did not significantly perturb plasminogen binding to unstimulated platelets, but the complex may be necessary for thrombin-stimulated plasminogen binding via its interaction with platelet fibrin.
L A Miles, M H Ginsberg, J G White, E F Plow
Fc-receptor-mediated clearance and nonspecific phagocytic clearance were assessed after the infusion of monomeric human IgG, heat-aggregated human IgG, and a monoclonal anti-mouse macrophage FcII receptor antibody (2.4G2) into normal mice. Each agent blocked Fc-receptor function in vivo, but 2.4G2 was much more potent per microgram than the other agents. Monomeric IgG in blocking doses did not affect other aspects of immune function. In contrast, aggregated IgG, and to a lesser extent, 2.4G2 reduced serum complement levels. In addition, these agents also caused moderate reductions in nonspecific phagocytic function. Monoclonal anti-mouse macrophage C3bi receptor antibody (Mac-1), another monoclonal antibody which binds to macrophage CR3 receptors without interfering with Fc-receptor function, also reduced serum complement and inhibited nonspecific phagocytic function. Complement depletion alone (produced by infusion of cobra venom factor) could not account for the observed changes in Fc receptor or nonspecific phagocytic function. We conclude that both monomeric IgG and anti-Fc-receptor antibodies can markedly inhibit Fc-receptor function in vivo; however, the pattern of physiologic changes produced by these agents differs.
R J Kurlander, J Hall
The association of class I and II HLA antigens with rheumatic fever and its manifestations was examined in 72 patients, including 48 blacks and 24 Caucasians. No significant association was found between class I antigens and rheumatic fever. In contrast, HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR4 phenotypes were encountered in a significantly higher frequency in black and Caucasian patients with rheumatic fever, respectively, compared with the control populations (P less than 0.005). The most significant association (P less than 0.005) of these DR antigens with a major manifestation of rheumatic fever was found for mitral insufficiency. In addition, a significant association was encountered between persistent elevation of antibody to the group A streptococcal carbohydrate and HLA-DR4 in Caucasian patients (P less than 0.04) or HLA-DR2 in the black patients (P less than 0.001). The frequency of HLA-DR2/4 heterozygotes among patients with rheumatic fever did not differ significantly from controls. These findings support the concept of a genetically determined susceptibility to rheumatic fever and, particularly, to rheumatic heart disease. The association of the clinical manifestations of rheumatic fever and the immune hyperresponsiveness to a streptococcal antigen could be ascribed to a disease-associated immune-response gene which is in linkage disequilibrium with the DR2 and DR4 alleles of HLA-DR locus on chromosome six.
E M Ayoub, D J Barrett, N K Maclaren, J P Krischer
Monocyte-derived interleukin 1 (IL-1) was found to be a potent inducer of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (HEC). The product was identified as PAF by its behavior in chromatographic systems, its recovery of biological activity, and its physico-chemical properties and susceptibility to lipases. The response of HEC to IL-1 was concentration-dependent, took more than 2 h to become apparent, and decreased after 18 h of incubation. Most of the PAF produced was cell-associated and only a small amount (about 25% of the total) was released in the culture medium. To study the mechanism of IL-1-induced HEC-PAF production we tested the activity of 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine:acetyl/coenzyme A acetyltransferase in HEC. Acetyltransferase activity measured in IL-1-stimulated HEC lysates showed a three to five times greater maximum velocity, but the same Michaelis constant, as untreated cells. The regulation of PAF generation in HEC by IL-1 may be an important aspect of the two-way interaction between immunocompetent cells and vascular tissue.
F Bussolino, F Breviario, C Tetta, M Aglietta, A Mantovani, E Dejana