BACKGROUND. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), plasma exchange and immunoadsorption are frequently used in the management of severe autoimmune diseases mediated by pathogenic IgG autoantibodies. These approaches to modulate IgG levels can however be associated with some severe adverse reactions and significant burden to patients. Targeting the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) presents an innovative and potentially more effective, safer, and convenient alternative for clearing pathogenic IgGs. METHODS. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first-in-human study was conducted in 62 healthy volunteers to explore single and multiple ascending intravenous doses of the FcRn antagonist efgartigimod. The study objectives were to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity. The findings of this study were compared with the pharmacodynamics profile elicited by efgartigimod in cynomolgus monkeys. RESULTS. Efgartigimod treatment resulted in a rapid and specific clearance of serum IgG levels in both cynomolgus monkeys and healthy volunteers. In humans, single administration of efgartigimod reduced IgG levels up to 50% whilst multiple dosing further lowered IgGs on average by 75% of baseline levels. Approximately 8 weeks following the last administration, IgG levels returned to baseline. Efgartigimod did not alter the homeostasis of albumin or immunoglobulins other than IgG and no serious adverse events related to efgartigimod infusion were observed. CONCLUSION. Antagonizing FcRn using efgartigimod is safe and results in a specific, profound, and sustained reduction of serum IgG levels. These results warrant further evaluation of this therapeutic approach in IgG-driven autoimmune diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03457649. FUNDING. argenx bvba.
Peter Ulrichts, Antonio Guglietta, Torsten Dreier, Tonke van Bragt, Valérie Hanssens, Erik Hofman, Bernhardt Vankerckhoven, Peter Verheesen, Nicolas Ongenae, Valentina Lykhopiy, F. Javier Enriquez, JunHaeng Cho, Raimund J. Ober, E. Sally Ward, Hans de Haard, Nicolas Leupin
BACKGROUND. The circadian clock is a fundamental and pervasive biological program that coordinates 24-hour rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behaviour, and it is essential to health. Whereas time-of-day adapted therapy is increasingly reported to be highly successful, it needs to be personalized since internal circadian time is different for each individual. In addition, internal time is not a stable trait, but is influenced by many factors including genetic predisposition, age, gender, environmental light levels and season. An easy and convenient diagnostic tool is currently missing. METHODS. To establish a validated test, we followed a three-stage biomarker development strategy: (i) using circadian transcriptomics of blood monocytes from 12 individuals in a constant routine protocol combined with machine learning approaches, we identified biomarkers for internal time; (ii) these biomarkers were migrated to a clinically relevant gene expression-profiling platform (NanoString), and (iii) externally validated using an independent study with 28 early or late chronotypes. RESULTS. We developed a highly accurate and simple assay (BodyTime) to estimate the internal circadian time in humans from a single blood sample. Our assay needs only a small set of blood-based transcript biomarkers and is as accurate as the current gold standard dim light melatonin onset method at smaller monetary, time and sample number cost. CONCLUSION. The BodyTime assay provides a new diagnostic tool for personalization of healthcare according to the patient’s circadian clock. FUNDING. This study was supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Germany (FKZ: 13N13160 and 13N13162) and Intellux GmbH, Germany.
Nicole Wittenbrink, Bharath Ananthasubramaniam, Mirjam Münch, Barbara Koller, Bert Maier, Charlotte Weschke, Frederik Bes, Jan de Zeeuw, Claudia Nowozin, Amely Wahnschaffe, Sophia Wisniewski, Mandy Zaleska, Osnat Bartok, Reut Ashwal-Fluss, Hedwig Lammert, Hanspeter Herzel, Michael Hummel, Sebastian Kadener, Dieter Kunz, Achim Kramer
BACKGROUND. A common germline variant in HSD3B1(1245A>C) encodes for a hyperactive 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (3βHSD1) missense that increases metabolic flux from extragonadal precursor steroids to DHT synthesis in prostate cancer. Enabling of extragonadal DHT synthesis by HSD3B1(1245C) predicts for more rapid clinical resistance to castration and sensitivity to extragonadal androgen synthesis inhibition. HSD3B1(1245C) thus appears to define a subgroup of patients who benefit from blocking extragonadal androgens. However, abiraterone, which is administered to block extragonadal androgens, is a steroidal drug that is metabolized by 3βHSD1 to multiple steroidal metabolites, including 3-keto-5α-abiraterone, which stimulates the androgen receptor. Our objective was to determine if HSD3B1(1245C) inheritance is associated with increased 3-keto-5α-abiraterone synthesis in patients. METHODS. First, we characterized the pharmacokinetics of 7 steroidal abiraterone metabolites in 15 healthy volunteers. Second, we determined the association between serum 3-keto-5α-abiraterone levels and HSD3B1 genotype in 30 patients treated with abiraterone acetate (AA) after correcting for the determined pharmacokinetics. RESULTS. Patients who inherit 0, 1, and 2 copies of HSD3B1(1245C) have a stepwise increase in normalized 3-keto-5α-abiraterone (0.04 ng/ml, 2.60 ng/ml, and 2.70 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION. Increased generation of 3-keto-5α-abiraterone in patients with HSD3B1(1245C) might partially negate abiraterone benefits in these patients who are otherwise more likely to benefit from CYP17A1 inhibition. FUNDING. Prostate Cancer Foundation Challenge Award, National Cancer Institute.
Mohammad Alyamani, Hamid Emamekhoo, Sunho Park, Jennifer Taylor, Nima Almassi, Sunil Upadhyay, Allison Tyler, Michael P. Berk, Bo Hu, Tae Hyun Hwang, William Douglas Figg, Cody J. Peer, Caly Chien, Vadim S. Koshkin, Prateek Mendiratta, Petros Grivas, Brian Rini, Jorge Garcia, Richard J. Auchus, Nima Sharifi
BACKGROUND. The effect of a brief analytical treatment interruption (ATI) on the HIV-1 latent reservoir of individuals who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) during chronic infection is unknown. METHODS. We evaluated the impact of transient viremia on the latent reservoir in participants who underwent an ATI and at least 6 months of subsequent viral suppression in a clinical trial testing the effect of passive infusion of the broadly neutralizing Ab VRC01 during ATI. RESULTS. Measures of total HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated RNA, and infectious units per million cells (IUPM) (measured by quantitative viral outgrowth assay [QVOA]) were not statistically different before or after ATI. Phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 env sequences from QVOA and proviral DNA demonstrated little change in the composition of the virus populations comprising the pre- and post-ATI reservoir. Expanded clones were common in both QVOA and proviral DNA sequences. The frequency of clonal populations differed significantly between QVOA viruses, proviral DNA sequences, and the viruses that reactivated in vivo. CONCLUSIONS. The results indicate that transient viremia from ATI does not substantially alter measures of the latent reservoir, that clonal expansion is prevalent within the latent reservoir, and that characterization of latent viruses that can reactivate in vivo remains challenging. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02463227 FUNDING. Funding was provided by the NIH.
D. Brenda Salantes, Yu Zheng, Felicity Mampe, Tuhina Srivastava, Subul Beg, Jun Lai, Jonathan Z. Li, Randall L. Tressler, Richard A. Koup, James Hoxie, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Kevin McCormick, E. Turner Overton, Frederic D. Bushman, Gerald H. Learn, Robert F. Siliciano, Janet M. Siliciano, Pablo Tebas, Katharine J. Bar
BACKGROUND. Recombinant leptin (metreleptin) ameliorates hyperphagia and metabolic abnormalities in leptin-deficient humans with lipodystrophy. We aimed to determine whether metreleptin improves glucose and lipid metabolism in humans when food intake is held constant. METHODS. Patients with lipodystrophy were hospitalized for 19 days with food intake held constant by controlled diet in an inpatient metabolic ward. In a non-randomized cross-over design, previously metreleptin-treated patients (n = 8) were continued on-metreleptin for five days, and off-metreleptin for the next 14 days (withdrawal cohort). This order was reversed in metreleptin-naïve patients (n = 14), who were restudied after six months of metreleptin treatment on an ad libitum diet (initiation cohort). Outcomes included insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, fasting glucose and triglycerides, lipolysis measured using isotopic tracers, and liver fat by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS. With food intake constant, peripheral insulin sensitivity decreased by 41% after stopping metreleptin for 14 days (withdrawal cohort) and increased by 32% after starting metreleptin for 14 days (initiation cohort). In the initiation cohort only, metreleptin decreased fasting glucose by 11%, triglycerides by 41%, and increased hepatic insulin sensitivity. Liver fat decreased from 21.8% to 18.7%. In the initiation cohort, lipolysis did not change independent of food intake, but decreased after six months on metreleptin on an ad libitum diet by 30% (palmitate turnover) to 35% (glycerol turnover). CONCLUSION. Using lipodystrophy as a human model of leptin deficiency and replacement, we showed that metreleptin improves insulin sensitivity, and decreases hepatic and circulating triglycerides, independent of its effects on food intake. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01778556. FUNDING. This research was supported by the intramural research program of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Rebecca J. Brown, Areli Valencia, Megan Startzell, Elaine Cochran, Peter J. Walter, H. Martin Garraffo, Hongyi Cai, Ahmed M. Gharib, Ronald Ouwerkerk, Amber B. Courville, Shanna Bernstein, Robert J. Brychta, Kong Y. Chen, Mary Walter, Sungyoung Auh, Phillip Gorden
BACKGROUND. Monogenic Interferon (IFN)-mediated autoinflammatory diseases present in infancy with systemic inflammation, an IFN-response-gene-signature (IRS), inflammatory organ damage and high mortality. We used the janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor baricitinib with IFN-blocking activity in vitro, to ameliorate disease. METHODS. Between October 2011 and February 2017, 10 patients with CANDLE (chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperatures), 4 with SAVI (Stimulator of IFN genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy), and 4 patients with other interferonopathies were enrolled in an Expanded Access Program. Patients underwent dose-escalation, benefit was assessed by reductions in daily disease symptoms and corticosteroid requirement. Quality-of-life, organ inflammation, changes in IFN-induced biomarkers, and safety were longitudinally assessed. RESULTS. 18 patients were treated for a mean duration of 3.0 years (1.5–4.9 years). The median daily symptom score decreased from 1.3 (IQR 0.93–1.78) to 0.25 (IQR 0.1-0.63) (P < 0.0001). In 14 patients receiving steroids at baseline, daily prednisone doses decreased from 0.44 mg/kg/day (IQR 0.31–1.09) to 0.11 mg/kg/day (IQR 0.02–0.24) (P < 0.01); 5 of 10 CANDLE patients achieved lasting clinical remission. Quality of life, height and bone mineral density Z-scores significantly improved, and IFN biomarkers decreased. Three patients discontinued, two with genetically undefined conditions due to lack of efficacy, and one CANDLE patient due to BK viremia and azotemia. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory infections, gastroenteritis, BK viruria and viremia. CONCLUSION. On baricitinib treatment, clinical manifestations, inflammatory and IFN biomarkers improved in patients with the monogenic interferonopathies, CANDLE, SAVI and 2 other interferonopathies. Monitoring safety and efficacy is important in benefit-risk assessment. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01724580 and NCT02974595. FUNDING. NIH, NIAID, NIAMS, NIDDK, NHLBI, NINDS, and the Clinical Center. Baricitinib was provided by Eli Lilly. Eli Lilly is the sponsor of the compassionate use program.
Gina A. Montealegre Sanchez, Adam Reinhardt, Suzanne Ramsey, Helmut Wittkowski, Philip J. Hashkes, Yackov Berkun, Susanne Schalm, Sara Murias, Jason A. Dare, Diane Brown, Deborah L. Stone, Ling Gao, Thomas Klausmeier, Dirk Foell, Adriana A. de Jesus, Dawn C. Chapelle, Hanna Kim, Samantha Dill, Robert Colbert, Laura Failla, Bahar Kost, Michelle O'Brien, James C. Reynolds, Les R. Folio, Katherine R. Calvo, Scott M. Paul, Nargues Weir, Alessandra Brofferio, Ariane Soldatos, Angélique Biancotto, Edward W. Cowen, John G. Digiovanna, Massimo Gadina, Andrew J. Lipton, Colleen Hadigan, Steven M. Holland, Joseph Fontana, Ahmad S. Alawad, Rebecca J. Brown, Kristina I. Rother, Theo Heller, Kristina M. Brooks, Parag Kumar, Stephen R. Brooks, Meryl Waldman, Harsharan K. Singh, Volker Nickeleit, Maria Silk, Apurva Prakash, Jonathan M. Janes, Seza Ozen, Paul G. Wakim, Paul A. Brogan, William L. Macias, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky
BACKGROUND. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are effective in a broad population of ovarian cancer patients, however resistance caused by low enzyme expression of the drug target, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), remains to be clinically evaluated in this context. We hypothesize that PARP-1 expression is variable in ovarian cancer and can be quantified in primary and metastatic disease using a novel positron emitting tomography (PET) imaging agent. METHODS. We used a translational approach to describe the significance of PET imaging of PARP-1 in ovarian cancer. First, we produced PARP1 KO ovarian cancer cell lines using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to test loss of PARP-1 as a resistance mechanism to all clinically used PARP inhibitors. Next, we performed pre-clinical microPET imaging studies using ovarian cancer patient derived xenografts in mouse models. Finally, in a phase 1 PET imaging clinical trial we explored PET imaging as a regional marker of PARP-1 expression in primary and metastatic disease through correlative tissue histology. RESULTS. We found deletion of PARP1 causes resistance to all PARP inhibitors in vitro and microPET imaging provides proof of concept as an approach to quantify PARP-1 in vivo. Clinically, we observed a spectrum of standard uptake values (SUVs) for PARP-1 in tumors ranging from 2-12. In addition, we found a positive correlation between PET SUVs and fluorescent immunohistochemistry for PARP-1 (r2: 0.60). CONCLUSIONS. This work confirms the translational potential of a PARP-1 PET imaging agent and supports future clinical trials to test PARP-1 expression as a method to stratify patients for PARP inhibitor therapy. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02637934.
Mehran Makvandi, Austin Pantel, Lauren Schwartz, Erin Schubert, Kuiying Xu, Chia-Ju Hsieh, Catherine Hou, Hyoung Kim, Chi-Chang Weng, Harrison Winters, Robert Doot, Michael D. Farwell, Daniel A. Pryma, Roger A. Greenberg, David A. Mankoff, Fiona Simpkins, Robert H. Mach, Lilie L. Lin
BACKGROUND. Sporadic vascular malformations (VMs) are complex congenital anomalies of blood vessels that lead to stroke, life-threatening bleeds, disfigurement, overgrowth, and/or pain. Therapeutic options are severely limited and multi-disciplinary management remains challenging, particularly for high-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVM). METHODS. To investigate the pathogenesis of sporadic intracranial and extracranial VMs in 160 children in which known genetic causes had been excluded, we sequenced DNA from affected tissue and optimised analysis for detection of low mutant allele frequency. RESULTS. We discovered multiple mosaic activating variants in four genes of the RAS-MAPK pathway, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1, a pathway commonly activated in cancer and responsible for the germ-line RAS-opathies. These variants were more frequent in high-flow than low-flow VMs. In vitro characterisation and two transgenic zebrafish AVM models which recapitulated the human phenotype validated the pathogenesis of the mutant alleles. Importantly, treatment of AVM-BRAF mutant zebrafish with the BRAF inihibitor, Vemurafinib, restored blood flow in AVM. CONCLUSIONS. Our findings uncover a major cause of sporadic vascular malformations of different clinical types, and thereby offer the potential of personalised medical treatment by repurposing existing licensed cancer therapies. FUNDING. This work was funded or supported by grants from AVM Butterfly Charity, the Wellcome Trust (UK), the Medical Research Council (UK), the UK National Institute for Health Research, L’Oreal-Melanoma Research Alliance, the European Research Council, and the National Human Genome Research (US).
Lara Al-Olabi, Satyamaanasa Polubothu, Katherine Dowsett, Katrina A. Andrews, Paulina Stadnik, Agnel P. Joseph, Rachel Knox, Alan Pittman, Graeme Clark, William Baird, Neil Bulstrode, Mary Glover, Kristiana Gordon, Darren Hargrave, Susan M. Huson, Thomas S. Jacques, Gregory James, Hannah Kondolf, Loshan Kangesu, Kim M. Keppler-Noreuil, Amjad Khan, Marjorie J. Lindhurst, Mark Lipson, Sahar Mansour, Justine O'Hara, Caroline Mahon, Anda Mosica, Celia Moss, Aditi Murthy, Juling Ong, Victoria E. Parker, Jean-Baptiste Rivière, Julie C. Sapp, Neil J. Sebire, Rahul Shah, Branavan Sivakumar, Anna Thomas, Alex Virasami, Regula Waelchli, Zhiqiang Zeng, Leslie G. Biesecker, Alex Barnacle, Maya Topf, Robert K. Semple, E. Elizabeth Patton, Veronica A. Kinsler
BACKGROUND. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte–mediated (CTL-mediated) severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are rare but life-threatening adverse reactions commonly induced by drugs. Although high levels of CTL-associated cytokines, chemokines, or cytotoxic proteins, including TNF-α and granulysin, were observed in SJS-TEN patients in recent studies, the optimal treatment for these diseases remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and therapeutic mechanism of a TNF-α antagonist in CTL-mediated SCARs. METHODS. We enrolled 96 patients with SJS-TEN in a randomized trial to compare the effects of the TNF-α antagonist etanercept versus traditional corticosteroids. RESULTS. Etanercept improved clinical outcomes in patients with SJS-TEN. Etanercept decreased the SCORTEN-based predicted mortality rate (predicted and observed rates, 17.7% and 8.3%, respectively). Compared with corticosteroids, etanercept further reduced the skin-healing time in moderate-to-severe SJS-TEN patients (median time for skin healing was 14 and 19 days for etanercept and corticosteroids, respectively; P = 0.010), with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in all SJS-TEN patients (2.6% for etanercept and 18.2% for corticosteroids; P = 0.03). In the therapeutic mechanism study, etanercept decreased the TNF-α and granulysin secretions in blister fluids and plasma (45.7%–62.5% decrease after treatment; all P < 0.05) and increased the Treg population (2-fold percentage increase after treatment; P = 0.002), which was related to mortality in severe SJS-TEN. CONCLUSIONS. The anti–TNF-α biologic agent etanercept serves as an effective alternative for the treatment of CTL-mediated SCARs. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01276314. FUNDING. Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan.
Chuang-Wei Wang, Lan-Yan Yang, Chun-Bing Chen, Hsin-Chun Ho, Shuen-Iu Hung, Chih-Hsun Yang, Chee-Jen Chang, Shih-Chi Su, Rosaline Chung-Yee Hui, See-Wen Chin, Li-Fang Huang, Yang Yu-Wei Lin, Wei-Yang Chang, Wen-Lang Fan, Chin-Yi Yang, Ji-Chen Ho, Ya-Ching Chang, Chun-Wei Lu, Wen-Hung Chung, the Taiwan Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reaction (TSCAR) Consortium
BACKGROUND. The link between mucus plugs and airflow obstruction has not been established in chronic severe asthma, and the role of eosinophils and their products in mucus plug formation is unknown. METHODS. In clinical studies, we developed and applied a bronchopulmonary segment–based scoring system to quantify mucus plugs on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) lung scans from 146 subjects with asthma and 22 controls, and analyzed relationships among mucus plug scores, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and airway eosinophils. Additionally, we used airway mucus gel models to explore whether oxidants generated by eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) oxidize cysteine thiol groups to promote mucus plug formation. RESULTS. Mucus plugs occurred in at least 1 of 20 lung segments in 58% of subjects with asthma and in only 4.5% of controls, and the plugs in subjects with asthma persisted in the same segment for years. A high mucus score (plugs in ≥ 4 segments) occurred in 67% of subjects with asthma with FEV1 of less than 60% of predicted volume, 19% with FEV1 of 60%–80%, and 6% with FEV1 greater than 80% (P < 0.001) and was associated with marked increases in sputum eosinophils and EPO. EPO catalyzed oxidation of thiocyanate and bromide by H2O2 to generate oxidants that crosslink cysteine thiol groups and stiffen thiolated hydrogels. CONCLUSION. Mucus plugs are a plausible mechanism of chronic airflow obstruction in severe asthma, and EPO-generated oxidants may mediate mucus plug formation. We propose an approach for quantifying airway mucus plugging using MDCT lung scans and suggest that treating mucus plugs may improve airflow in chronic severe asthma. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01718197, NCT01606826, NCT01750411, NCT01761058, NCT01761630, NCT01759186, NCT01716494, and NCT01760915. FUNDING. NIH grants P01 HL107201, R01 HL080414, U10 HL109146, U10 HL109164, U10 HL109172, U10 HL109086, U10 HL109250, U10 HL109168, U10 HL109257, U10 HL109152, and P01 HL107202 and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences grants UL1TR0000427, UL1TR000448, and KL2TR000428.
Eleanor M. Dunican, Brett M. Elicker, David S. Gierada, Scott K. Nagle, Mark L. Schiebler, John D. Newell, Wilfred W. Raymond, Marrah E. Lachowicz-Scroggins, Selena Di Maio, Eric A. Hoffman, Mario Castro, Sean B. Fain, Nizar N. Jarjour, Elliot Israel, Bruce D. Levy, Serpil C. Erzurum, Sally E. Wenzel, Deborah A. Meyers, Eugene R. Bleecker, Brenda R. Phillips, David T. Mauger, Erin D. Gordon, Prescott G. Woodruff, Michael C. Peters, John V. Fahy, The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP)
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